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Sunday, January 21, 2007

Retro Microcomputer Vintage Timex Sinclair Homepage

SINCLAIR ZX81 ZX80 - TIMEX TS1000 TS1500 - PC8300 - LAMBDA - JUPITER ACE

ZX-TEAM-homepage www.zx81.de
ZX-TEAM
the world's very last but active users group for
SINCLAIR ZX80, ZX81 and clones presents:
ZX-TEAM-Homepage (English pages)

ISO81* zeddyfied
* International Sinclair Owners since 1981
ZX-TEAM
weltweit die letzte aktive User-Gruppe für
SINCLAIR ZX80, ZX81 und Clones präsentiert:
ZX-TEAM-Homepage (Deutsche Seiten)




Webmaster: Peter Liebert-Adelt, Luetzowstr.3, D-38102 Braunschweig, Germany
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


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Acorn 305 Vintage Retro Computer Vintage



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X81 Timex Sinclair Micro Computer Vintage





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Timex Sinclair Computer Vintage Vintage Computer


The ZX81, Sinclair's third computer, sparked a popular mania for computing following its launch in 1981. The machine was shipped in two versions: as a traditional self-assembly kit (right) and, more popularly, as a ready-assembled machine which only needed to be connected to a television and power supply before it could be used. In modern terms it was one of the first "plug and play" computers.

By today's standards the ZX81 is laughably primitive: only 1K of memory, no colour or sound and a notably unresponsive touch-sensitive keyboard. Even by the standards of the time, its technology was basic. The ZX81 owed its success not to its capabilities but to that most elusive quality, being the right product in the right place at the right time. It attracted a great deal of attention by Sinclair's traditional sales route, mail-order - 300,000 ZX81s were sold that way by the end of January 1982 - but its key breakthrough was on the British high street.

It seems strange these days, when shops selling computers are so ubiquitous, but back in 1981 there were very few shops selling computer equipment. The ZX81 could not have succeeded in the way that it did without the fortuitous involvement of the British newspaper chain W.H. Smith. The company was a long-established high street presence which had gone somewhat stale by the early 1980s. Seeking to reinvigorate its business, Smiths agreed to stock ZX81s in selected stores across the UK. The response was phenomenal, tapping into a previously unsuspected mass market for home computing. By February 1982, Sinclair Research was making over 40,000 ZX81s a month and still could not keep up with the demand. Within two years of release, the ZX81 had sold over a million units.

The huge success of the ZX81 virtually created the British home computer market. Many competitors sprang up to take advantage of the tidal wave of public enthusiasm for home computers. Hundreds of software and hardware manufacturers sprang up almost overnight to support the new market. More seriously for Sinclair, a flurry of rival computer manfacturers entered the market. Most were seen off relatively quickly - machines such as the Oric-1 and Dragon 32 failed to make much impact - but some of the competitors, such as Acorn (itself founded by ex-Sinclair employees), survived and prospered.

ZX81s were exported to the United States in considerable numbers - 15,000 a month - suggesting that, as in Britain, there was a huge untapped market. The ZX81 was actually manufactured by an American company, Timex Inc., operating from its factory in Dundee, Scotland. From the outset it was clear that Timex was the ideal partner for Sinclair to use in its attempt to crack the crucial United States market. Between, the Timex/Sinclair partnership produced two modified versions of the ZX81 for the US market


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Friday, January 19, 2007

The "Mac" Name Was Also Trademarked By Another Company

The "Mac" Name Was Also Trademarked By Another Company
Topic: Apple

Jobs1984

Steve Jobs' trademark spat with Cisco over "iPhone" isn't the first time Jobs has brought a product to market with another company's trademark -- he did it with the Mac.

According to the biography of former Apple CEO John Sculley, Odyssey: Pepsi to Apple, Jobs launched the Mac in 1984 even though the "Mac" trademark belonged to another company.

"Knowing we would face trademark challenges over Steve's decision to launch Macintosh under its original codename, Al (Eisenstat, Apple's general counsel) had argued at full volume that Steve should pick another name for the computer," Sculley writes on page 208.

Sculley doesn't name the other company, but says: "Steve prevailed, but it ultimately cost us nearly $2 million in out-of-court settlements."

The other company appears to be Management and Computer Services Inc., a small Philadelphia software company.

In 1985, Apple settled a trademark infringement suit with MACS Inc. for an undisclosed sum, according to a Jan. 24 report from the Associated Press:

"Apple Computer Inc. will pay an undisclosed sum to Management and Computer Services Inc. to settle a trademark-infringement lawsuit, the companies said today. The software company sued Apple for using 'Mac' to describe items associated with its Macintosh personal computer. Management and Computer Services uses 'Macs' as a trademark."

Sunday, January 14, 2007

Modern Times

Introduction

In the latest article of his weekly column, Hiroshige Goto talks about the subject of console costs and the strategies which the different manufacturers try to apply in order to minimize their expenses. We take a look at his statements, strategies and analysis.

For Goto, both Microsoft's Xbox 360 and Sony's Playstation are designed for future cost reductions by semiconductor scaling. According to him there will be 2 process changes during the current console cycle -- 65nm in 2007 and 45nm in 2009 -- which would theoretically cut current dice sizes to a fourth of their current size. Coinciding with process shrinks, the manufacturers would observe "dramatic" improvements in the yield rate. Also, a lower power consumption and heat generation would lower costs for the cooling and the EMI shielding.

Goto sees two results from the shrinks: on the one hand the reduction of the die size would reduce the silicon costs, on the other hand the shrinks should ease the reduction of the number of chips, the substrate costs, etc. -- as such, chip-related costs should scale down faster than the actual die sizes.

The current die sizes at 90nm are about 228mm² for the Cell CPU and ~240-260mm² for RSX in Sony's PlayStation 3. In Microsoft's Xbox360 the Xenon CPU is 168mm²; Xenos is comprised of a 170mm² GPU core and 70mm² EDRAM on the same package. On a 45nm process Goto expects Cell to be about 60mm². Consequently "the chip costs would decrease to a third or a fourth." (Goto).

Sony PlayStation 3

One of the biggest potentials for cost reductions is the number of DRAM chips used in the PlayStation 3 (PS3). Currently PS3 uses 4 512Mib GDDR3 and 4 512Mib XDR DRAMs. "The difficulty in decreasing the number of DRAM chips is maintaining the memory access times and memory bandwidth while decreasing their number" (Goto). Goto estimates that all DRAM chips will be replaced by 1Gib chips in the future, which we would expect in the timeframe.

As for the XDR chips, they're currently using a 64-bit interface to Cell which could be replaced by 1Gib XDR2 chips with a 32-bit bus while the bandwidth would remain the same. "Reducing the Rambus memory chips from 4 to 2 is easy. The memory bandwidth doesn’t change. Since we develop the XDRAM together with Rambus, we keep an eye on all such thing during the development" (Ken Kutaragi).

On the RSX side Goto assumes that the GPU and the 4 512Mib GDDR3 chips, both on the same substrate, could be connected via a custom interface. Thus, the 4 GDDR3 chips could be replaced by 2 1Gib custom DRAMs while still retaining the speed and bandwidth. Due to the high production volume of the PS3, the additional costs would be more than just offset by the cost savings. "If the product volume is small, it's difficult. But in the case of 20 million units per year, the options are manifold. For example, you can think about SIP (System-In-Package)." (Ken Kutaragi). From our point of view, it is perfectly possible that these chips would run at 1.4GHz and use a 64-bit memory bus instead of a 128-bit one, however. This would be more akin to a migration to GDDR4, then.

Another likely direction for cost reduction is the hardware backwards compatibility of the current PS3. In case of a reliable soft emulation solution, the PS2's EE/GS and 2 128Mib RDRAM chips could be removed.

Click here for Goto's proposed PS3 schematics

Microsoft Xbox 360

In contrast to the previous generation Microsoft bought the design from the chip vendors and has the chips produced in foundries. According to Goto this makes responding to advances in the manufacturing processes easier and allows for chip integration, which is an advantage only Sony had in the last generation.

For Goto the cost reductions lie mainly with Xbox 360's GPU (Xenos): The current multi-die setup of a GPU core currently manufactured by TSMC and the eDRAM currently produced by NEC, contributes to higher costs. A one-chip solution (eDRAM & GPU core) would reduce the number of dice produced (and at different foundries) and thus costs.

Goto expects that by the time the 65nm process becomes available, the eDRAM will be integrated in the GPU core. That move would also replace the wiring between the core and the daughter die, which according to Goto will become more difficult at smaller processes. Moreover, it would reduce the power consumption of the GPU. We believe, however, that plenty of problems exist with such a strategy, because EDRAM processes are quite different from traditional ones and not quite as tuned for logic. In the near future, Xenos will be produced on 65nm while the EDRAM will be produced on 55nm; in the longer term, Z-RAM may or may not become a viable option to replace EDRAM in the 45nm timeframe, possibly using SOI at TSMC.

The 8 512Mib GDDR3 DRAM chips connecting to Xenos through a 128-bit interface also offer the potential for a further cost cut: Goto reckons they will be replaced by 4 1Gib RAM chips, as soon they become cheaper through DRAM manufacturing shrinks.

Click here for Goto's proposed Xbox 360 schematics

Nintendo Wii

For Nintendo's Wii, Goto see little room for further cost reduction. After changing their approach toward technology Nintendo already focused on low-costs: Broadway's die size (CPU) is already down to 19 mm², which implies truly negligible costs. The number of DRAM chips has been reduced to 2: 1 GDDR3 chip and a 1T-SRAM chip. The only possibility for reduction is the integration of the 1T-SRAM die, "but the integration of the 1T-SRAM seems difficult because of the size of its capacity" (Goto).

It is furthermore questionable from our point of view whether such integration would actually reduce costs, given the resulting yield differences. We believe straight shrinks of AMD's Hollywood GPU are inevitable, however, which might help a fair bit already given the likely proportion of costs attributed to the chip.

Thus, Goto expects to the costs difference between Wii and Xbox360 & PS3 to shrink, as well as the price difference.

Click here for Goto's proposed Wii schematics

Conclusion

Historically, console cost reductions are met by engaging new process developments and advances in manufacturing technology, shrinking and combining components in order to make the same for less. It seems that the Wii's hardware is already small enough, and therefore cheap enough, for them to likely seek possible cost reductions via process scaling alone, rather than seek hardware combination too. Contrast that to the PS3 and Xbox 360 where Sony and Microsoft are likely to agressively seek scaling and silicon combination to achieve their ongoing cost reduction goals.

Extrapolating out to the mid-point and conclusion of this new console life-cycle, we can forsee points where Microsoft and then Sony achieve non-loss price points on their respective consoles, where they're selling for more than it cost to make (which clearly isn't the case right now). However, the fact that the console vendors are seeking to enhance their offerings in ways that didn't effect the last generation, be that better optical technology, larger hard disks, better display output options and more (all while keeping the base spec constant), means that certain SKUs might never cross over that break-even point.

The vendors therefore still hang a good chunk of their money-making endeavours on the games and value-add online services. We watch any new console variants with great interest nonetheless, since they'll have influence no matter how small on how the vendors attack a brand new generation come.

Hiroshige Goto is a technical journalist who focuses on development of next-generation gaming with strong emphasis on hardware. His articles have been published on the PC Watch website and in “DOS/VPowerreport” (Impress Japan), “Nikkei WinPC” (Nikkei BP), “DOS/VSpecial” (Mainichi Communications). He has also held several lectures, including a talk on multicore chips and Cell at SIG-GT 6 (2005).







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Saturday, January 13, 2007

Picadore 64: A Commodore PDA

Unveiling the Picodore 64 - a Commodore PDA!
« Thread Started on Dec 31, 2006, 1:30am »

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Here are a few pics of my own DTV Hummer project. I had an old PSOne LCD screen lying around and I thought I'd make a C64 laptop. Actually, it's more like a C64 PDA! It measures 6.5 x 6 x 1.5 inches (15.5 x 16.5 x 4 cm) when closed. It can run from an AC wall adapter or 6 NiMH AA batteries. The keyboard is hacked from a portable folding keyboard for a Jornada PDA which outputs RS-232. I'm using a PIC 16F88 to decode the signals and re-encode them to PS/2 (that was an ordeal to figure out). The PIC checks to see if an external PS/2 keyboard is connected on power up. If one is hooked up, it will route data from that instead. There is an internal ampilfied speaker as well as connections for audio and video output on the back. There's a serial connection for a disk drive and an SD card slot in the side for a 1541-III but I haven't been able to get that to work yet. I also have a connection for a userport/joystick. The joystick in the picture is a hacked Atari keychain joystick. The mini joystick wasn't in the original plan but after I accidentally discovered it on ebay, it seemed perfect.

Here's a how-to post regarding the RS232 to PS/2 keyboard hack:
http://jledger.proboards19.com/index.cgi?board=dtvhacking&action=display&thread=1167783024



Here are some of the innards. It was originally a Hummer. I cut the power supply part of the PCB off and supplied my own regulated 3.3V.



















Another size comparison to emphasize the tiny-ness of it.

Special thanks to David Murray, his site has been a permanent fixture on my computer for the last few weeks!

Why Super Nintendos Lose Their Color: Plastic Discoloration in Classic Machines

Why Super Nintendos Lose Their Color: Plastic Discoloration in Classic Machines

January 12th, 2007 by Benj Edwards

Discolored SNES

Sure, consoles age and get dirty. Heck, I remember a suspicious incident involving my Super Nintendo (SNES) console and a can of Coca-Cola in the early ’90s that left my SNES looking more like a moldy loaf of bread than a video game system. But around five years ago, I noticed that my SNES console was aging particularly badly. I cleaned off all the remnants of fossilized Coke residue from the chassis with a wet washcloth, but the “moldy bread” look still remained. The top half of the console’s plastic body retained a uniformly nasty yellow-brown hue, while the bottom half flaunted its showroom shine — that native SNES gray that we all know and love. I soon realized that a much deeper mechanism was responsible for the aesthetic disfigurement of my beloved SNES than mere dirt and sugar.

To further complicate matters, I have another SNES unit that was obviously produced more recently than my original one, and that console shows no sign of aging whatsoever. Comparing the units and the way different parts of them had discolored led me to believe that there is something different about the two batches of plastics — the one for the top half of the SNES chassis and the one for the bottom, or the plastic for the old unit and plastic for the new — that made them age differently over time.

Immediately below are two photos I took of my actual SNES units. Notice the difference between the colors of the top and bottom halves of the plastic chassis on the older unit, and also how the newer unit shows no sign of discoloration at all.

Discolored SNESMy first SNES console (right) exhibits discoloration on the top half only.
The newer unit on the left, however, looks as good as new.

Discolored SNESThe top half and bottom half of my first SNES console, disassembled.
Notice that the underside is yellowed with the same uniformity as the top.

The Investigation Begins

Discolored MacintoshesCase yellowing effects aren’t limited to the Super Nintendo console. Many models of Apple Macintosh computers exhibit similar symptoms: their cases discolor heavily as they age, frustrating computer collectors everywhere. I had long heard that plastic discoloration had something to do with UV exposure, which made more sense for the Macs, but not so for the SNES. In the case of the SNES itself, the chassis was uniformly discolored on both the outside and the inside of the case, which means that it could not have been the work of light. With all this in mind, I set out to find what was causing these plastic yellowing effects, and if the yellowing on the SNES and the Macintosh cases were related.

After poking around the net, I found some forum threads where people seemed to have vague ideas about what was causing the yellowing. Suggestions and accusations from forum regulars like “Wash your hands!” or “It’s tobacco stains,” were usually returned with, “But I’m a clean guy!” and “I don’t smoke,” so the problem isn’t quite that simple. Other people weighing in on the issue seemed more knowledgeable and suggested that keeping computers away from windows and fluorescent lighting will help prevent discoloration. Sounds good to me, but why, exactly, would sunlight cause certain plastic to yellow while other plastics retained their original color?

While searching the forums, the most helpful hint I found regarding the SNES was this. Someone had asked Nintendo of America’s customer support about the issue, and this is how they responded:


Message(#6851-000101-5635\1015635)

Hi!

Thank you for contacting us. That’s an interesting question! For the Super NES, this is a normal condition and no cause for alarm. Cleaning or handling the system will have minimal impact to change or revive the original color.

The Super NES, as well as our other systems, are made with a plastic containing flame-retardant chemicals to meet safety guidelines. Over time, the plastic will age and discolor both because of these chemicals as well as from the normal heat generated from the product or exposure to light. Because of the light color of the plastic of the SNES and NES, this discoloration is more easily seen than with other darker plastics such as on the N64 and the Nintendo GameCube.

Thanks for your email!
Nintendo of America Inc.
Casey Ludwig

Nintendo’s home page: http://www.nintendo.com/
Power Line (Automated Product Info): (425) 885-7529

Sounds pretty good to me, but is it true? While trying to get a more specific answer, I decided to write NOA myself to see what they said. This is what they responded:

Thanks for the e-mail. Unfortunately I don’t have an answer to your question. We’ve stopped servicing the Super NES many years ago, so our information is limited. I took a look at what we have, and nothing discusses housing discoloration. In addition I don’t have anyone I could refer you to that would be able to answer that question. If you need additional assistance, please contact our Consumer Service Department by calling 1-800-255-3700. Our representatives are available between 6:00 a.m. and 7:00 p.m. Pacific Time, seven days a week.

Sincerely,

Nintendo of America Inc.
Shane O’Neil

Discolored SNESAs you can read, the answer they sent me wasn’t nearly as helpful as the forum patron’s response. The only thing I learned from their reply is that people must not ask NOA support questions about discoloration very often if they don’t have a prepared answer for it.

When in Doubt, Consult an Expert

Dr. Rudolph DeaninUnsatisfied with Nintendo’s answer, I decided to dig deeper. I contacted Dr. Rudolph D. Deanin, founder of the graduate program in Plastics Engineering at the University of Massachusetts, Lowell and director of the program for over thirty years. I told him everything I know about plastic chassis discoloration in both the Super Nintendo and Macintosh computers and asked what he thought might be causing it.

“The plastics most commonly used to make the structural cases for electronic equipment are polypropylene, impact styrene, and ABS,” replied Deanin. “These all tend to discolor and embrittle gradually when exposed to UV and/or heat. They become oxidized and develop conjugated unsaturation, which produces color. They crosslink or degrade, which causes brittleness.”

From looking at a stamp on the Super Nintendo’s plastic case, I learned that the case is composed of ABS, which is a rugged, durable plastic that is sadly more susceptible to discoloration and degradation from both UV and heat than the alternatives.

“There are other plastics which would be more stable,” Deanin continued, “but manufacturers avoid them because they are more expensive and/or more difficult to process.”

Instead of using more expensive plastics, manufactures put additives known as stabilizers, absorbers, or blockers into the plastic mixture to reduce the effects of degradation. They also get creative with their use of pigmentation.

“Since most discoloration is toward yellowing, some manufacturers add a little blue to neutralize the yellow,” Deanin said. “This gives a temporary reprieve, but eventually the yellow keeps growing and overpowers it anyway.”

The Best Answer Involves Chemistry

Deanin got me really curious. I wanted to know more about how exactly the whole plastic degradation process woks, but he failed to go into it in detail. For example, what exactly about degradation makes the plastic change color?

After a few days of research on the process though jargon-dense industry white papers and by lurking on plastics forums, I managed to piece together an answer. Unfortunately, most of what I found focused on the UV-degradation (light exposure) side of things, which is most applicable to the discoloration of Macintosh cases. But we can apply some of what we’ll learn to the SNES in a moment.

How to Photooxidize a MacintoshMost plastics typically reflect the majority of UV light that hits them. However, if there are trace elements of catalyst residues (chemicals used in manufacturing of the plastic), such as if the manufacturer doesn’t get the mixture quite right, then the residues present in the final plastic will absorb UV and drastically accelerate the degradation process. Exposure to UV light in this instance starts a process called photodegradation (through photooxidation), which takes place in parallel with thermal oxidation (from exposure to heat). Both processes break down the chemical structure of the plastic as certain parts of it combine with available oxygen. And once this process gets started, it feeds upon itself and starts a continual cycle of degradation. Interestingly enough, the disrupted plastic molecules that are produced by the photooxidation process absorb UV light themselves and re-emit it at a lower wavelength (in the visible range), which changes the perceived color of the plastic.

In the case of the SNES plastic, however, the trigger of the oxidation process is clearly not UV light, but simple exposure to heat and air over time. Once the process is triggered, its effects cascade in a recursive cycle — as in the UV example above — eventually changing the physical nature of the plastic and its color.

Discolored SNESA piece of my Super Nintendo’s case was chipped off accidentally at some point in the console’s recent history. Notice how the center of the case’s plastic — which hasn’t been exposed to air for very long — is still gray.

In the Name of Retardation

A Flaming Super Nintendo!So think back. Those flame retardant chemicals that Nintendo mentioned are starting to sound like a plausible trigger for premature degradation. If we presume that those flame retardant additives, if mixed in an improper amount, have a similar effect as the catalyst residues that are absorbing the UV light and heat and triggering the photodegradation process described above, then it could account for the discoloration effect we’ve seen. Deanin weighed in on the flame retardant issue only by saying that most retardants are harmless, but certain “aliphatic bromine compounds” are unstable to heat and UV, and should be avoided. Flame retardants unstable to heat! How ironic.

Since two different batches of plastics had two different aging results (as illustrated in the top and bottom halves of my SNES, or the old and new SNES units), then there must have been a difference of additives between them. Perhaps in one of the production runs of plastic, they didn’t get the catalyst or flame retardant mixture quite right and more residues were left over in the top half’s plastic batch, thus causing it to degrade more rapidly over time. And by the time Nintendo produced the later runs of Super Nintendos, they had perfected the manufacturing process of their plastic, meaning that those later models aren’t as susceptible to oxidation as the earlier models are.

So, What Can I Do About It?

SNES ProtectionNow that you’ve heard all about plastic discoloration and its causes, you’re probably wondering what you can do to prevent or fix it. Unfortunately, the best answer is, “not much.” The only prevention tip Deanin had for me was this:

“A useful way to prevent UV discoloration is to put a UV-resistant plastic coating on top of the base plastic. This adds to the cost, but it definitely solves the problem. ”

Ok, so you can paint your old consoles with a UV-resistant coating, but that doesn’t sound like a very attractive option. It might make your console shiny, and it wouldn’t be historically accurate — if you care about that sort of thing. So what can you do after the discoloration has taken place? Once, again, Deanin wasn’t much help.

UV-Resistant Coating“Paint it! The auto industry paints much of the plastic they use in cars. The paint industry could certainly design an optimum paint formulation for such a market.”

So, yeah, you could sand down your old consoles like an old car and paint them, which some people do already to make green and yellow “John Deere” Atari 2600s and black PlayStation 2-like Nintendo Entertainment Systems. But then the console becomes a “mod” and ceases to be faithful to the original design.

Despite all this general negativity, I have managed to put together a few tips and ideas about how to prevent and repair plastic discoloration.

Prevention Methods:

  1. Keep your most prized collector pieces out of rooms with fluorescent lighting.
  2. Keep your units away from windows and sunlight because, like the fluorescent lighting, the UV exposure will drastically hasten their discoloration. Even indirect sunlight can do damage over time.
  3. Avoid placing your unit next to a heat source such as a radiator, air duct, or fireplace. Or in the fire.
  4. Do not keep your machines in a room where people smoke tobacco (wacky or otherwise).
  5. Apply a coat of UV protectant.
  6. Try not to breathe too heavily upon your console’s exterior.
    Ok — this one’s a joke.
  7. For the ultimate in protection, seal your unit in a lead-lined, temperature-controlled, evacuated vault away from any radiation, visible or otherwise. But hey, what fun is that?

Repair & Restoration Methods:

  1. Magic Erasers (Melamine Foam)Magic Erasers (melamine foam) - Great for surface dirt. Good for very light surface discoloration, but it will rub off painted logos and subtle textures like an abrasive.
  2. SandpaperSandpaper - Scrape your way to fresh plastic underneath. Not recommended for historical purists or console rights activists!
  3. BleachBleach - I’ve had limited success with letting bleach sit on Macintosh cases. It does work, but it’s difficult to get a uniform effect unless you can soak the whole piece in bleach equally. And who knows what it does to the structure of the plastic.
  4. Paint ItPaint - Cover up that ugly yellowed plastic and turn your SNES into a shiny ode to Heinz ketchup!
The “Magic” in Magic Erasers
Melamine Foam StructureI have recently overheard a number of collectors talking about using “Mr. Clean Magic Erasers” to clean their computer cases. Magic Erasers are incredibly effective at removing surface dirt, smudges, or cigarette smoke film (when it’s not chemically bonded to the plastic). But using them to combat intrinsic case yellowing is another story all together.

Magic Erasers are made entirely of a substance called melamine, which is lightweight, heat resistant organic compound which has, in the case of Magic Erasers, been extruded into a microporous foam. Until someone discovered its cleaning properties, melamine was used primarily as a flame resistant sound-proofing material and as an ingredient in resin laminates. Melamine foam has a microscopic open-ended bubble structure that, with the aid of water, finds its way into previously impossible-to-clean cracks, crevices, and textures.

Despite their amazing cleaning potential, Magic Erasers are no more than fancy abrasive pads, complete with all the drawbacks that entails. Which means that you should exercise caution while using Magic Erasers or other melamine foam products. Magic Erasers essentially act like extremely fine-grade sandpaper that will wear away any surface over time with repeated scrubbings. It happens so slowly, however, and on such a small scale that its effect is hard to notice at first. But if you keep rubbing and rubbing, you’ll wear more and more of what you’re rubbing away. Permanently.

Magic Erasers are capable of removing discolored plastic to a limited extent, but you’ll have to scrub very hard and you’ll lose surface texture in the process. I tried scrubbing for about ten minutes on both SNES and Mac LC III cases with melamine foam, but the results were unsatisfactory due to the smoothing of the cases and the paltry reduction in yellowing. If you’re into abrasives like that, you might as well use sandpaper for a quicker result (but you’ll regret it). Save the Magic Erasers for surface dirt only.

A Gallery of Dysfunctional Plastics

Finally, with all that other stuff out of the way, I thought I’d show you some more pictures of plastic discoloration. They range from SNES cartridges to video monitors.

Enjoy, and help keep plastics clean and beautiful.

Discolored SNESSNES cartridges are not immune to the vagaries of plastic discoloration.
Like the SNES unit itself, sometimes two halves of a cartridge case
will age differently due to different manufacturing runs.

Discolored MacintoshUV at Work: This computer sat in sunlight for years with a monitor connected.
Notice how the monitor connector shielded some of the plastic from
discoloration, preserving the original gray color only in that spot.

Discolored MacintoshHere’s one where a monitor sat on top of a Mac for years, shading
the plastic underneath from exposure to sunlight.

Discolored Apple IIe PlatinumThis poor Apple IIe Platinum has been the victim of discoloration too.

Discolored RGB MonitorYes, most of my equipment looks this bad! This discoloration is the result of this
monitor sitting in a room with florescent lighting as the only light source for a very
long time. The two parts of the monitor were originally the same light gray color.


Why Super Nintendos Lose Their Color: Plastic Discoloration in Classic Machines

Why Super Nintendos Lose Their Color: Plastic Discoloration in Classic Machines

January 12th, 2007 by Benj Edwards

Discolored SNES

Sure, consoles age and get dirty. Heck, I remember a suspicious incident involving my Super Nintendo (SNES) console and a can of Coca-Cola in the early ’90s that left my SNES looking more like a moldy loaf of bread than a video game system. But around five years ago, I noticed that my SNES console was aging particularly badly. I cleaned off all the remnants of fossilized Coke residue from the chassis with a wet washcloth, but the “moldy bread” look still remained. The top half of the console’s plastic body retained a uniformly nasty yellow-brown hue, while the bottom half flaunted its showroom shine — that native SNES gray that we all know and love. I soon realized that a much deeper mechanism was responsible for the aesthetic disfigurement of my beloved SNES than mere dirt and sugar.

To further complicate matters, I have another SNES unit that was obviously produced more recently than my original one, and that console shows no sign of aging whatsoever. Comparing the units and the way different parts of them had discolored led me to believe that there is something different about the two batches of plastics — the one for the top half of the SNES chassis and the one for the bottom, or the plastic for the old unit and plastic for the new — that made them age differently over time.

Immediately below are two photos I took of my actual SNES units. Notice the difference between the colors of the top and bottom halves of the plastic chassis on the older unit, and also how the newer unit shows no sign of discoloration at all.

Discolored SNESMy first SNES console (right) exhibits discoloration on the top half only.
The newer unit on the left, however, looks as good as new.

Discolored SNESThe top half and bottom half of my first SNES console, disassembled.
Notice that the underside is yellowed with the same uniformity as the top.

The Investigation Begins

Discolored MacintoshesCase yellowing effects aren’t limited to the Super Nintendo console. Many models of Apple Macintosh computers exhibit similar symptoms: their cases discolor heavily as they age, frustrating computer collectors everywhere. I had long heard that plastic discoloration had something to do with UV exposure, which made more sense for the Macs, but not so for the SNES. In the case of the SNES itself, the chassis was uniformly discolored on both the outside and the inside of the case, which means that it could not have been the work of light. With all this in mind, I set out to find what was causing these plastic yellowing effects, and if the yellowing on the SNES and the Macintosh cases were related.

After poking around the net, I found some forum threads where people seemed to have vague ideas about what was causing the yellowing. Suggestions and accusations from forum regulars like “Wash your hands!” or “It’s tobacco stains,” were usually returned with, “But I’m a clean guy!” and “I don’t smoke,” so the problem isn’t quite that simple. Other people weighing in on the issue seemed more knowledgeable and suggested that keeping computers away from windows and fluorescent lighting will help prevent discoloration. Sounds good to me, but why, exactly, would sunlight cause certain plastic to yellow while other plastics retained their original color?

While searching the forums, the most helpful hint I found regarding the SNES was this. Someone had asked Nintendo of America’s customer support about the issue, and this is how they responded:


Message(#6851-000101-5635\1015635)

Hi!

Thank you for contacting us. That’s an interesting question! For the Super NES, this is a normal condition and no cause for alarm. Cleaning or handling the system will have minimal impact to change or revive the original color.

The Super NES, as well as our other systems, are made with a plastic containing flame-retardant chemicals to meet safety guidelines. Over time, the plastic will age and discolor both because of these chemicals as well as from the normal heat generated from the product or exposure to light. Because of the light color of the plastic of the SNES and NES, this discoloration is more easily seen than with other darker plastics such as on the N64 and the Nintendo GameCube.

Thanks for your email!
Nintendo of America Inc.
Casey Ludwig

Nintendo’s home page: http://www.nintendo.com/
Power Line (Automated Product Info): (425) 885-7529

Sounds pretty good to me, but is it true? While trying to get a more specific answer, I decided to write NOA myself to see what they said. This is what they responded:

Thanks for the e-mail. Unfortunately I don’t have an answer to your question. We’ve stopped servicing the Super NES many years ago, so our information is limited. I took a look at what we have, and nothing discusses housing discoloration. In addition I don’t have anyone I could refer you to that would be able to answer that question. If you need additional assistance, please contact our Consumer Service Department by calling 1-800-255-3700. Our representatives are available between 6:00 a.m. and 7:00 p.m. Pacific Time, seven days a week.

Sincerely,

Nintendo of America Inc.
Shane O’Neil

Discolored SNESAs you can read, the answer they sent me wasn’t nearly as helpful as the forum patron’s response. The only thing I learned from their reply is that people must not ask NOA support questions about discoloration very often if they don’t have a prepared answer for it.

When in Doubt, Consult an Expert

Dr. Rudolph DeaninUnsatisfied with Nintendo’s answer, I decided to dig deeper. I contacted Dr. Rudolph D. Deanin, founder of the graduate program in Plastics Engineering at the University of Massachusetts, Lowell and director of the program for over thirty years. I told him everything I know about plastic chassis discoloration in both the Super Nintendo and Macintosh computers and asked what he thought might be causing it.

“The plastics most commonly used to make the structural cases for electronic equipment are polypropylene, impact styrene, and ABS,” replied Deanin. “These all tend to discolor and embrittle gradually when exposed to UV and/or heat. They become oxidized and develop conjugated unsaturation, which produces color. They crosslink or degrade, which causes brittleness.”

From looking at a stamp on the Super Nintendo’s plastic case, I learned that the case is composed of ABS, which is a rugged, durable plastic that is sadly more susceptible to discoloration and degradation from both UV and heat than the alternatives.

“There are other plastics which would be more stable,” Deanin continued, “but manufacturers avoid them because they are more expensive and/or more difficult to process.”

Instead of using more expensive plastics, manufactures put additives known as stabilizers, absorbers, or blockers into the plastic mixture to reduce the effects of degradation. They also get creative with their use of pigmentation.

“Since most discoloration is toward yellowing, some manufacturers add a little blue to neutralize the yellow,” Deanin said. “This gives a temporary reprieve, but eventually the yellow keeps growing and overpowers it anyway.”

The Best Answer Involves Chemistry

Deanin got me really curious. I wanted to know more about how exactly the whole plastic degradation process woks, but he failed to go into it in detail. For example, what exactly about degradation makes the plastic change color?

After a few days of research on the process though jargon-dense industry white papers and by lurking on plastics forums, I managed to piece together an answer. Unfortunately, most of what I found focused on the UV-degradation (light exposure) side of things, which is most applicable to the discoloration of Macintosh cases. But we can apply some of what we’ll learn to the SNES in a moment.

How to Photooxidize a MacintoshMost plastics typically reflect the majority of UV light that hits them. However, if there are trace elements of catalyst residues (chemicals used in manufacturing of the plastic), such as if the manufacturer doesn’t get the mixture quite right, then the residues present in the final plastic will absorb UV and drastically accelerate the degradation process. Exposure to UV light in this instance starts a process called photodegradation (through photooxidation), which takes place in parallel with thermal oxidation (from exposure to heat). Both processes break down the chemical structure of the plastic as certain parts of it combine with available oxygen. And once this process gets started, it feeds upon itself and starts a continual cycle of degradation. Interestingly enough, the disrupted plastic molecules that are produced by the photooxidation process absorb UV light themselves and re-emit it at a lower wavelength (in the visible range), which changes the perceived color of the plastic.

In the case of the SNES plastic, however, the trigger of the oxidation process is clearly not UV light, but simple exposure to heat and air over time. Once the process is triggered, its effects cascade in a recursive cycle — as in the UV example above — eventually changing the physical nature of the plastic and its color.

Discolored SNESA piece of my Super Nintendo’s case was chipped off accidentally at some point in the console’s recent history. Notice how the center of the case’s plastic — which hasn’t been exposed to air for very long — is still gray.

In the Name of Retardation

A Flaming Super Nintendo!So think back. Those flame retardant chemicals that Nintendo mentioned are starting to sound like a plausible trigger for premature degradation. If we presume that those flame retardant additives, if mixed in an improper amount, have a similar effect as the catalyst residues that are absorbing the UV light and heat and triggering the photodegradation process described above, then it could account for the discoloration effect we’ve seen. Deanin weighed in on the flame retardant issue only by saying that most retardants are harmless, but certain “aliphatic bromine compounds” are unstable to heat and UV, and should be avoided. Flame retardants unstable to heat! How ironic.

Since two different batches of plastics had two different aging results (as illustrated in the top and bottom halves of my SNES, or the old and new SNES units), then there must have been a difference of additives between them. Perhaps in one of the production runs of plastic, they didn’t get the catalyst or flame retardant mixture quite right and more residues were left over in the top half’s plastic batch, thus causing it to degrade more rapidly over time. And by the time Nintendo produced the later runs of Super Nintendos, they had perfected the manufacturing process of their plastic, meaning that those later models aren’t as susceptible to oxidation as the earlier models are.

So, What Can I Do About It?

SNES ProtectionNow that you’ve heard all about plastic discoloration and its causes, you’re probably wondering what you can do to prevent or fix it. Unfortunately, the best answer is, “not much.” The only prevention tip Deanin had for me was this:

“A useful way to prevent UV discoloration is to put a UV-resistant plastic coating on top of the base plastic. This adds to the cost, but it definitely solves the problem. ”

Ok, so you can paint your old consoles with a UV-resistant coating, but that doesn’t sound like a very attractive option. It might make your console shiny, and it wouldn’t be historically accurate — if you care about that sort of thing. So what can you do after the discoloration has taken place? Once, again, Deanin wasn’t much help.

UV-Resistant Coating“Paint it! The auto industry paints much of the plastic they use in cars. The paint industry could certainly design an optimum paint formulation for such a market.”

So, yeah, you could sand down your old consoles like an old car and paint them, which some people do already to make green and yellow “John Deere” Atari 2600s and black PlayStation 2-like Nintendo Entertainment Systems. But then the console becomes a “mod” and ceases to be faithful to the original design.

Despite all this general negativity, I have managed to put together a few tips and ideas about how to prevent and repair plastic discoloration.

Prevention Methods:

  1. Keep your most prized collector pieces out of rooms with fluorescent lighting.
  2. Keep your units away from windows and sunlight because, like the fluorescent lighting, the UV exposure will drastically hasten their discoloration. Even indirect sunlight can do damage over time.
  3. Avoid placing your unit next to a heat source such as a radiator, air duct, or fireplace. Or in the fire.
  4. Do not keep your machines in a room where people smoke tobacco (wacky or otherwise).
  5. Apply a coat of UV protectant.
  6. Try not to breathe too heavily upon your console’s exterior.
    Ok — this one’s a joke.
  7. For the ultimate in protection, seal your unit in a lead-lined, temperature-controlled, evacuated vault away from any radiation, visible or otherwise. But hey, what fun is that?

Repair & Restoration Methods:

  1. Magic Erasers (Melamine Foam)Magic Erasers (melamine foam) - Great for surface dirt. Good for very light surface discoloration, but it will rub off painted logos and subtle textures like an abrasive.
  2. SandpaperSandpaper - Scrape your way to fresh plastic underneath. Not recommended for historical purists or console rights activists!
  3. BleachBleach - I’ve had limited success with letting bleach sit on Macintosh cases. It does work, but it’s difficult to get a uniform effect unless you can soak the whole piece in bleach equally. And who knows what it does to the structure of the plastic.
  4. Paint ItPaint - Cover up that ugly yellowed plastic and turn your SNES into a shiny ode to Heinz ketchup!
The “Magic” in Magic Erasers
Melamine Foam StructureI have recently overheard a number of collectors talking about using “Mr. Clean Magic Erasers” to clean their computer cases. Magic Erasers are incredibly effective at removing surface dirt, smudges, or cigarette smoke film (when it’s not chemically bonded to the plastic). But using them to combat intrinsic case yellowing is another story all together.

Magic Erasers are made entirely of a substance called melamine, which is lightweight, heat resistant organic compound which has, in the case of Magic Erasers, been extruded into a microporous foam. Until someone discovered its cleaning properties, melamine was used primarily as a flame resistant sound-proofing material and as an ingredient in resin laminates. Melamine foam has a microscopic open-ended bubble structure that, with the aid of water, finds its way into previously impossible-to-clean cracks, crevices, and textures.

Despite their amazing cleaning potential, Magic Erasers are no more than fancy abrasive pads, complete with all the drawbacks that entails. Which means that you should exercise caution while using Magic Erasers or other melamine foam products. Magic Erasers essentially act like extremely fine-grade sandpaper that will wear away any surface over time with repeated scrubbings. It happens so slowly, however, and on such a small scale that its effect is hard to notice at first. But if you keep rubbing and rubbing, you’ll wear more and more of what you’re rubbing away. Permanently.

Magic Erasers are capable of removing discolored plastic to a limited extent, but you’ll have to scrub very hard and you’ll lose surface texture in the process. I tried scrubbing for about ten minutes on both SNES and Mac LC III cases with melamine foam, but the results were unsatisfactory due to the smoothing of the cases and the paltry reduction in yellowing. If you’re into abrasives like that, you might as well use sandpaper for a quicker result (but you’ll regret it). Save the Magic Erasers for surface dirt only.

A Gallery of Dysfunctional Plastics

Finally, with all that other stuff out of the way, I thought I’d show you some more pictures of plastic discoloration. They range from SNES cartridges to video monitors.

Enjoy, and help keep plastics clean and beautiful.

Discolored SNESSNES cartridges are not immune to the vagaries of plastic discoloration.
Like the SNES unit itself, sometimes two halves of a cartridge case
will age differently due to different manufacturing runs.

Discolored MacintoshUV at Work: This computer sat in sunlight for years with a monitor connected.
Notice how the monitor connector shielded some of the plastic from
discoloration, preserving the original gray color only in that spot.

Discolored MacintoshHere’s one where a monitor sat on top of a Mac for years, shading
the plastic underneath from exposure to sunlight.

Discolored Apple IIe PlatinumThis poor Apple IIe Platinum has been the victim of discoloration too.

Discolored RGB MonitorYes, most of my equipment looks this bad! This discoloration is the result of this
monitor sitting in a room with florescent lighting as the only light source for a very
long time. The two parts of the monitor were originally the same light gray color.


Thursday, January 11, 2007

Casio sells its one billionth calculator

Casio sells its one billionth calculator

Just as broadcast radio was turning one hundred, Casio was selling its one billionth calculator, as the company reportedly announced that this past December held the milestone purchase. The firm's first electronic calculator, dubbed the 001, hit the market in 1965, and played a big part in the development of the chip industry by generating demand for LSI chips. The pocket-sized renditions the company is so well known for started in 1972 with the Casio Mini, only to be followed by the graphing scientific version in 1985. These monochrome graphing editions will always hold a special spot in our hearts, as there was just nothing like kicking back during class and crushing your previous Tetris record while the instructor gave you kudos for focusing so intently on your work, and of course, that wasn't the only game to ever get ported to the small screen. So here's to Casio for hitting the big 1 billion, but we've got to admit, it looks like TI is the current champ in terms of universal acceptability, but we can't argue too much with a figure like that.

Sunday, January 07, 2007

Vintage Computer Manuals