Vintage Computer Manuals

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Sunday, July 30, 2006

Vintage Computer: GEOS 16 Bit PC Based Photos

Vintage Computer Manuals

Vintage Computer: GEOS 16 Bit PC Based Photos

Vintage Computer Manuals :GEOS for PC/X86 Systems (Windows)

GEOS (16-bit operating system)

From Wikipedia

GEOS home computer operating system for the PC/x86 system architecture.

Geoworks Ensemble - PC/GEOS 1.0–2.xIn 1990, GeoWorks released GEOS for IBM PC compatible systems, PC/GEOS. Also called GeoWorks Ensemble, it was incompatible with the Commodore and Apple versions but provided numerous enhancements, including scalable fonts and multitasking even on XT and AT-class PC clones. Being written directly in assembly language, it also provided much better performance than the relatively sluggish Microsoft Windows 3.0 on 386 and 486 PCs. GEOS was bundled with numerous PCs at the time, but like other GUI environments for the PC platform, such as GEM, it ultimately proved less successful in the marketplace than Windows.

In December of 1992 NEC and Sony bundeled an OEM version of GeoWorks called the CD Manager with their respective CD-ROM players that sold as retail box add-on peripherals for consumers. The NEC Bundle retailed for around $500.00 with a 1x external CD Rom, SCSI Interface Controller, Labtec CD-150 amplified stereo speakers and 10 software titles.

The subsystem of GeoWorks was used by America Online for their DOS-based AOL connection and browsing software from the time of introduction on IBM compatible PCs until the late 1990s when America Online dropped development for graphical DOS in favor of Microsoft Windows. During that time, the popular single 3.5" disk that AOL was distributing on could be hacked to boot the GeoWorks graphical operating environment

link :

Vintage Computer Manuals :GEOS Inside and Out

GEOS Inside and Out
An introduction to GEOS its applications and internals

From the Foreward :

GEOS (Graphic Environment Opearating System ) has changed the face of home computing. Until now , home computer users were pretty much on their own once they bought the computer, and either had to shell out the money for ready-to-run programs , or go through the tedious process of learning a computer language and do their own programming. But GEOS comes with the 64C when you buy it - you are ready to run it the moment you get home.

Since we follow the Commodore closely , we were wondering , just what the diffirence there was between the "new" 64C and the old C-64. When we saw GEOS, we were overjoyed .
The 64 , now has an advanced user interface -similar to GEM, an interface previously available only in much higher-priced computers. Most commands don't need to be in . Instead , graphic symbols are used . Now when you want to delete a file , you no longer need to type:

OPEN 1,8 , 15 : "SONAME" : CLOSE1

Now you just move an icon , or symbol that represents the program , and "deposit " it in to another program , and "deposit" it in to another icon that looks like a waste basket. It's hard to believe what the developers of GEOS have done with the 64. We've spent many hours in front of our 64's learning about the new GEOS have done with the 64 and we're constantly amazed by its capabilities . GEOS is the user-friendly interface that beginners have been waiting for.

link : www.

Geos 8 bit Commodore Geowrite Photo

Vintage Computer Manuals

Geos 8 bit Commodore Photos

photos credit : wikipedia

Vintage Computer Manuals

GEOS Inside and Out 8bit Commodore

GEOS Inside and Out

An Introduction to GEOS , its applications and internals

GEOS (8-bit operating system)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the GEOS home computer operating system. For the PC/x86 based system, see GEOS (16-bit operating system).

GEOS (Graphic Environment Operating System) was an operating system from Berkeley Softworks (later Geoworks). Originally designed for the Commodore 64 and released in 1986, it provided a graphical user interface for this popular 8-bit computer.

GEOS for the Commodore 64. Mimicking Commodore's OS core naming/misspelling, Berkeley called GEOS' core a "kernal" (cf. kernel).

geoWrite, a word processor in GEOS.GEOS closely resembled early versions of Mac OS and included a graphical word processor (geoWrite) and paint program (geoPaint). For many years, Commodore bundled GEOS with its redesigned and cost reduced C64, the C64C. At its peak, GEOS was the third most popular operating system in the world in terms of units shipped, trailing only MS-DOS and Mac OS.

Other GEOS-compatible software packages were available from Berkeley or from third parties, including a reasonably sophisticated desktop publishing application called geoPublish and a spreadsheet called geoCalc. While geoPublish was not as sophisticated as Aldus Pagemaker and geoCalc not as sophisticated as Microsoft Excel, the packages provided reasonable functionality, and Berkeley founder Brian Dougherty claimed the company ran its business using its own software on Commodore 8-bit computers for several years.

Enhanced versions of GEOS later became available for the Commodore 128 and the Apple II family. A lesser-known version was also briefly released for the Commodore Plus/4.

Written by a group of programmers who cut their teeth on limited-resource video game machines such as the Atari 2600, GEOS was revered for what it could accomplish on machines with 64–128KB of RAM memory and 1–2 MHz of 8-bit processing power.

Unlike many pieces of commercial software for the C64 and C128, GEOS took full advantage of many of the add-ons and improvements available for these systems. Commodore's 1351 mouse was supported by GEOS, as were its various RAM expansion units. GEOS 128 also fully supported the C128's 640×200 high-resolution VDC display mode through a compatible RGB monitor.

The C64 version of GEOS incorporated a built-in fast loader, called diskTurbo, that significantly increased the speed of drive access on the slow 1541. (GEOS 128 could take advantage of the C128's enhanced "burst mode" in conjunction with the 1571 and 1581 drives.)

Via Berkeley's special geoCable interface converter or other third-party interfaces to connect standard RS-232 or Centronics printers to the Commodore serial bus, GEOS supported a wide variety of printers, including HP PCL printers and the Apple LaserWriter. This ability to print to high-end printers was a major factor in making GEOS a desktop publishing platform.

The Apple II version of GEOS was released as freeware (not open source) in August 2003. The Commodore 64/128 versions followed in February 2004.

Vintage Computer Manuals

Vintage Computers: Novice Computer User Word List A - H

This is a list of words that will turn up frequently as choice words.

The list is from the letters A to the Letter H .

Using one of these words idicates a novice or uninterested computer user.

In addition to these words , you will want to try the letters of the alphabet , various combinations of letters and numbers , and things easily typed on a standard
keyboard such as "poiuy" or "yhnujm". Also for novices, try names and team names , cars , colors , animals , job related words, pet names , music groups , local popular radio station call letters, local slang , names of cities or town, company names and the names , brand or type of computers. And don't forget Windows, Windowsxp or Windows98.

For parents , try things like "dad" or "Daddy" "mother" or "mommy". For people of certain professions something like "Doctor Daddy" or " Captain Faddy" may be appropriate.

List A- H

account birthday disk
adventure black diskette
aid book/s dumb
aids bowling brain
alpha brain eat
angel breast fish
ass car/s force
asshole cdrom Friday
bach code f ck
bard comp f cku
barf cow f ckuu
baseball crazy games
basic cunt go
basketball darkstar Christmas
bboard dead golf
beam death ham
beta dick happy
big disc hell

Vintage Computer Manuals : Introducing Windows Vista

Introducing Windows Vista



Saturday, July 29, 2006

Vintage Computer Manuals : Common Computer Default Words

These are words that are often used as default setup names passwords.

Try using various combinations of them as both name and password.

As well try using variations on the firm name and type of service that is offered as names / setup passwords. Try things like putting a slash in front of words ( for example "/guest" or seperating two words with a slash such as "Mail/company name ". Also try putting space in between words ( i.e , "New User") and varying capitalization ( i.e "NewUser","newUser," etc.)

Also worth trying are easily remembered numbers ( 1000,9999,12345,101010, 1492 etc) and repeated numbers or letters - if a password can be up to 8 characters try "XXXXXXXX" and other things like this.

Do not forget single letter and digits, asteriks and other above-number characters , and plain 'n simple blank line returns.

word list

test demo use q demonstration
monitor mail enter z instructions
it new newuser sysop introduction
zero 1 password name newuser
start sys system test systest
su field temp instr passwd
0 pswrd 9 startup id
email tty root go train
account trainer tempy training info
default testing mini hello techsupport
a x supruser superuser anonymous

Vintage Computer Manuals

Intel DX Math CoProcessor Additional Photos

Vintage Apple II Computers : Additional Photos Microsoft Softcard for the Apple II with CP/M

Vintage Apple Computers : Microsoft Softcard for the Apple II with CP/M

Microsoft Softcard
A peripheal for the Apple II with CP/M and Microsoft BASIC on diskette

Produced by Microsoft

Microsoft Consumer Products
408 108th Ave N.E. , Suite 200
Belleveue , WA 98004


The Softcard Explained

The Circuit Card

The Microsoft Softcard is a plug-in card for the Apple II microcomputer , but be sure to read the Installation and Operations Manual to ensure that you do it correctly.

Once you have installed the SoftCard , you will be able to operate your Apple in either 6502 or Z-80 mode using software commands to switch between the two. Whenever you are in 6502 mode , the SoftCard in no way affects operation of your Apple.

While in the Z-80 mode , you can run both the CP/M operating system from Digital Research and Microsoft's BASIC interpreter Version 5.0 , which are included in the SoftCard package.

The SoftCard is easy to install and requires no hardware or software puter that greatly enhances the software capability of the Apple . The SoftCard actually contains a Z-80A microprocessor , allowing the Apple to run software that was written for Z-80 based microcomputers.

CP/M Operating System

Next to the circuit card itself , CP/M is the most important key allowing a wide variety of Z-80 software to run on the Apple version 2.2 of CP/M is included in the SoftCard package.

CP/M (which stands for Control Program/Microprocessors) is an operating system designed for use with the 8080 and Z-80 microprocessors . It is composed of many small programs whose collective function is to write information to and retrieve information from microcomputer floppy disk. CP/M has been adapted to run on almost all computers running the 8080 or Z-80 families of microprocessors and because of its widespread use , a very large group of high level languages and application software has been written to operate in the CP/M environments.

With the advent of the SoftCard Apple owners are now able to take advantage of the CP/M Operating System. Microsoft has implemented CP/M on the Apple II ,making all modifications needed to make to make CP/M run on the Apple.

Standard CP/M programs will be compatible with Apple CP/M . There is just one difficulty
in loading them on the Apple. Apple disks have a physically diffirent format than CP/M disks. Before a CP/M program written for another type of computer can be run on the Apple , it must be downloaded from a standard CP/M computer to the Apple. This program is described in detail in the Software Utilities Manual .

In addition to supporting a wider variety of software , CP/M offers several convenient features not found in Apple DOS. These include easy interface machine language programs , faster click I/O ; simple file transter , and wild file-naming conventions that allow you to refer to multiple files with one name.

Microsoft Basic

Microsoft's ANSI-standard BASIC interpreter, in its fifth major release , is also included as part of the SoftCard package . Microsoft BASIC has many features not found in Applesoft . Among them are PRINT USING CALL, WHILE/WEND , CHAIN and COMMON and built in Disk I/O statements. In addition , most of the graphics features of Applesoft have been incorporated into Microsoft BASIC to take advantage of the Apple's special capabilities . A complete list of the diffirences can be found in Part 4 , the Microsoft BASIC Reference Maual.

The Diskettes

Two diskettes , each containing CP/M and Microsoft BASIC , plu several utility programs , are provided . One of the disks is in 13-Sector format and should be used if you don't have a Language Card or DOS 3.3 . The 16-Sector disk , also contains an enhanced version of Microsoft BASIC with a high-resolution graphics capabilites .

Designers and Manufacturer
The Softcard Circuit Board

Designer : Hne SoftCard circuit board was designedby Don Burtis of Burtronix , Villa Park California . Microsoft Consumer Products is greatfull to Burtronix for its contribution to making the SoftCard a reality .

Manufacturer : The SoftCard circuit board is manufactured for Microsoft Consumer Products by Vista Computer Co. of Santa Ana , California .

SoftCard Software

The CP/M opearating system , Version 2.0 is licensed by Microsoft from Digital Research Inc. , of Pacific Grove , California . The BASIC interpreter included in this package is Microsoft's ANSI-standard BASIC -80. Version 5.0 , with additional enhancements to take advantage of Apple's special capabilities . Neil Konzen of Microsoft Consumer Products , was instrumental in implementing , all of the SoftCard software on the Apple II.

System Requirements

The Softcard will operate on an Apple II Plus microcomputer with a mini,um of 48K RAM and one disk drive.

The SoftCard supports the Apple Language Card system can utilize 12K of the 16K on the Language Card in the Z-80 mode.

CP/M occupies 7K of RAM, only 5K of which is needed during the execution of user programs of CP/M and MBASIC together occupy just over 29K RAM. CP/M and GBASIC (BASIC with a high resolution graphics m found only on the 16-Sector disk) occupy just over 37K RAM

When you are in the 6502 mode , the Softcard in no way affects operation of the Apple II.

When in Z-80 mode , all standard Apple I/O peripheal cards and some independent peripheals are supported.

The full Microsoft Softcard : A Peripheal for the Apple II with CP/M and Microsoft Basic on diskette available for download at link :

Vintage Computer Manuals : Intel387 DX Math CoProcessor User's Guide

Intel387 DX Math CoProcessor User's Guide

Full User Guide


Congratulations on your purchase of an Intel387 DX Math CoProcessor !

You have joined over nine million other computer users who benefit from the extra performance gained by adding an Intel Math CoProcessor.

Your math coprocessor is easy to install and use. No additional software is needed. Your Intel387 DX Math CoProcessor Utilities diskette contains an animated installation documentation. To view this demo, insert the diskette in drive
A and type:

A: and press Enter
then type install and press Enter
Follow the instructions on your screen after the program installs.

Because your Ontel387 DX Math CoProcessor is made by the same people who designed the Intel386 DX computer and PC software, it is 100 % compatible with your Intel386 DX computer and software. Most of your favorite programs will run faster.

The following list contains just a few of the many programs that use the math processor's speed .

* Business graphics programs such as Arts and Letters, Freedom , Press and Freelance .
* Spreadsheet programs such as Lotus 1-2-3 , Excel , Quattro and Wingz .
* Computer Aided Design (CAD) programs such as AutoCAD , IBM CAD , VersaCAD and Generic CADD .
* Math and Science Programs such as Mathematica , TK Solver . SPSS/PC and Statgraphics.

These programs and more than 2100 others can gain speed when used with an Intel Math CoProcessor.

Plus , you get genuine Intel quality and Intel's Industry-leading warranty.

Vintage Computer Manuals

Tuesday, July 25, 2006

Vintage Apple Computer Manuals : Apple II The DOS Manual " Disk Operating System'

Apple II
The DOS Manual
Disk Operating System


This manual has two primary functions. The first is to teach you how to use the DOS (Disk Operating System): the Chapters of the manual use examples to accompany explanations of how the various DOS commands work. The second function of the manual is to serve as a reference guide to DOS. The Appendices, Quick Reference Card, and the Indices were planned with this function in mind.

To use an Apple Disk II, you need an Apple II computer with at least 16 k of memory – but 32 k is recommended. Since the 16 k system allows little memory space to store programs. In fact, the MUFFIN program and the FID program on your System Manager Diskette need 32 k of memory to run. For writing Apple Disk II with AppleSoft on cassette tape or on diskette you need at least 32 k of memory.

The Apple Disk II is a “floppy” disk unit which allows you to store and retrieve information more quickly than you can with tape. The information is stored and retrieved from a “diskette”, a small (about 5 inch) in diameter specially coated plastic disk which is permanently sealed in a plastic case.

One of the most important advantages of using Disk II is that information is stored and retrieved by a name by which it is filed. A program that catalogs phone numbers might be saved with an instruction such as
And retrieved with an equally simple command. The name PHONE NUMBERS under which a program is filled is a file name.

The programs that automatically keep track of files save and retrieve information and do a multitude of other housekeeping tasks are called the Disk Operating System, usually shortened to “DOS”. Some people say “doss” and others say “ Dee oh less”. Learning to use DOS and the disk consists of learning a few special DOS commands described in this manual. These commands can be used as extensions to either Applesoft of Integer BASIC or machine language programs.

The fill Apple II "The DOS Manual " Disk Operating System available for download

Apple II Dos - Apple II " The DOS Manual - Disk Operating System "

Vintage Computer Manuals

Sunday, July 23, 2006

Summer Sizzle Brings Blackouts, Sags and Spikes to Your Vintage Computers

Why tempt fate notes Mr. N. Vandal supervisor of the electronic trauma and diagnostic division of Metro Services .

Summer weather can not only zap your newer computer systems but also your vintage computer as well as irrereplaceable vintage computer software as well as the time and energy spent in setup, hardware replacement and running computer systems.

Why does the summer season bring so much trouble – brownouts, sags and electric currents spikes?

Summer heat does wonders. Not only does it allow you to acquire a lovely tan but if causes utility grids to be strained beyond their capacity due to the increased use of air conditioners. In such cases power utilities adjust their voltage output, sometimes causing erratic power sags and spikes, which are extremely dangerous for computer hardware as well as software. And you can expect utilities to be more conservative to avoid another outage like that which happened in the hot August summer of 2003.

On Aug 14, 2003 it was estimated that due to a summer electric heat surge 50 million people and businesses were plunged into the dark and heat.

The summary cost was an estimated $ 6 billion

Similarly it is estimated that in the United States that smaller outages cost the U.S. economy in lost productivity the not unsubstantial cost of $ 50 billion.

So says the IEEE – the Institute of Electronics and Electronics Engineers. The worlds’ leading professional organization for the advancement of technology.

Secondly the unique geography of the U.S. produces favorable conditions for tornadoes, resulting in about 1000 tornadoes every year according to the weather channel

Tornadoes are highly unpredictable with wind speeds reaching 300 mph, a tornado is the most destructive storm of all, ripping up utility lines and leading to lengthy, unexpected blackouts.

As well last years hurricane season was a record breaker with more than an alphabet’s worth of named storms, causing the National Hurricane Center to resort to the Greek Alphabet ever. It was also the first season since 1851 to have three categories of five storms. (Katrina, Rita, Wilma).

Lightning is always the most obvious concern of most computer enthusiasts. Each lightening flash typically contains about 1 billion volts and between 10 and 20 thousand amps of current. Currents can transfer through wiring or plumbing and destroy everything in its path, of course including your irreplaceable Vintage Computer and Software Collection.

This damage is entirely possible. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAAA) reports an average of 20 million cloud to ground flashes

Have been detected every year since 1989.

How can you protect yourself?

First of all purchase proper surge protection and have it in place.

There are various levels of surge protection devices.

1) Power bars with a simple switch. These are the choice of most as they are readily available and inexpensive. However the switch is just that a switch not a surge protector. The appearance of an electronic device fools many into believing that they “are protected”. Sadly they are not.
2) Inexpensive Surge Protection devices. This is a better step than the first. However the protection is limited by the fact that the surge protection is afforded by simple Silica sand. With time and moisture (usually no more than a year) the surge protection is highly diminished.

If you use these inexpensive Silica sand based surge protectors replace them on a yearly basis. As well note the capacity of the surge protector. It does no good to have a very inadequate surge protector.

Read the labels and descriptions on the packages.

You can not protect a large computer system with a surge protector designed for one simple computer or laptop.

3) More expensive electronic surge protection units. A wise choice. However as noted above ensure that your protection is well rated above PEAK power use not a lower power use

4) Lastly you may well consider a more expensive though very safe solution an Uninterrupted Power Supply

An uninterruptible power supply, or UPS, (sometimes called an 'uninterruptible power source ') is a device which maintains a continuous supply of electric power to connected equipment by supplying power from a battery when utility power is not available. A UPS is inserted between the source of power (typically commercial utility power) and the load which is to be protected. When a power failure or abnormality occurs, the UPS will effectively switch from utility power to battery power .While they are not limited to any particular type of equipment, they are typically used to protect computers.

Remember why tempt fate when it comes to your prized vintage computer system .

Fire departments not only fight fires they are most effective in preventing fires.

Vintage Computer Manuals

Link to Popodex

Vintage Apple Computer Manuals : Apple ProDOS ProDos

Apple ProDOS

“Apple ProDOS is primarily a disk operating system, but handles interrupts and memory management also.”

“A system program communicates between the user and the operating system.”


1.1 What is ProDOS?

ProDOS is an operating system that allows you to manage many of the resources available to an Apple II. It functions primarily as a disk operating system, but it also handles interrupts and provides a simple means for memory management. ProDOS marks files with the current date and time, taken from a clock/calendar card if you have one.

All ProDOS startup disks have two files in common: RODOS and xxx.SYSTEM (chapter 2 explains the possible values for xxx). The file PRODOS contains the ProDOS operating system; it performs most of the communication between a system program and the computer’s hardware. The file xxx.SYSTEM contains a system program that usually communicates between the user and the operating system. Figure 1-1 shows a simplified block diagram of the ProDOS system.

A ProDOS system program – such as the BASIC system program (file BASIC.SYSTEM on the ProDOS BASIC Programming Examples disk), the ProDOS Filer (file FILER on the ProDOS User’s disk), or the DOS-ProDOS Conversion program (file CONVERT on the ProDOS user’s disk) – is an assembly language program that accepts commands from a user, makes sure that they are valid, and then takes appropriate action. One course of action is to make a call to the Machine Language Interface (MLI), the portion of the operating system that receives, validates and issues operating system commands.

A Simplified_Diagram_of_Apple ProDOS

Calls to the MLI give you control over various aspects of the hardware. MLI calls can be divided into housekeeping calls, filing calls, memory call, and interrupt handling calls. The way that the MLI communicates with disk drives, memory, and interrupt driven devices is described in the following sections (full manual available at

A Word about System Programs. If you have dealt with system programs before , you may be a bit confused about the term as used in this manual ( full manual available for download at ) True System programs are neither application programs ( such as a word processor) nor operating systems : they provide an easy means of making operating system calls from application programs.

As used in this manual, system program refers to a program that is written in assembly language, makes calls to the Machine Language interface, and adheres to a set of conventions, making it relatively easy to switch from one program to another. System programs can be identified by their file type.

In short, it is the structure of a program not its function, that makes a program a ProDOS

Vintage Computer Manuals

Saturday, July 22, 2006

Vintage Computer Junkyard Photo Enough to Make You Cry

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Vintage Computer Manuals

Vintage Apple Computer Lisa Apple Computer Photos

Photos source :

Vintage Computer Manuals

Vintage Apple Computers : LISA: A Professional Assembly Language for Apple Computers July 1980

LISA : A Professional Assembly Language Development System for Apple Computers

1981 by Online Systems



Note: formatting style in full capital letters has been retained from the original Lisa “A PROFESSIONAL ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM FOR APPLE COMPUTERS “Manual

Section 1.1 – What is LISA?

LISA (pronounced LI, ZA not LE SA) is an interactive 6502 assembler for the Apple II. It was carefully designed to suit the needs of beginners and advanced programmers alike. Due to its structure, code compression, interaction, and built-in features LISA is easily the most powerful assembler available for the Apple II.

With LISA machine programming becomes almost as easy as BASIC. LISA works with you instead of working against you, as is the case with several other available assemblers. LISA is a symbolic assembler; the programmer does not have to keep track of addresses as is the case with the built-in ROM mini-assembler. LISA has more built in features than any other assembler available for the Apple II! More pseudo opcodes ( which make the assembler easier to use ), Sweet 16 mnemonics (which turns your Apple II into a 16 bit machine, requiring less code to perform a desired task), more extended mnemonics ( a great memory aid), and more commands which allow the flexible use of DOS 3.2.

LISA also works with the new Apple II PLUS as well as with Apple’s Autostart ROM or the language system. If your Apple II has the LAZER MicrosSystems Lower Case +PLUS installed , you may enter and display the entire 96 upper/lower case AXCII character set and all characters may be entered directly form an unmodified Apple keyboard . Not only that , but should you desire to incorporate lower case input into your assembly language programs LAZER Systems has provided a source listing of the “LISA P2.L” routines (used by LISA) for your convenience


LISA is a disk based product. Minimum requirements include at least one disk drive and 48k bytes of RAM. LISA 2.564k requires a language card for proper operation. Since the majority of LISA 2.5 owners have a RAM card of some type this documentation will be directed primarily at those individuals who a 64K Apple. There are no syntactical differences between LISA 48K and LISA 64K, only the addresses and the amount of available memory are changed between the two versions. The appendices contain a special section pointing out the differences. Apple owners with only 48K should study this section carefully.

The LAZER Microsystems Lower Case +PLUS is optional, but comes highly recommended. Along with the LAZER MicroSystems Lower Case +PLUS you will probably want the Keyboard +Plus as well. Its built-in type-ahead buffer is extremely useful when editing large programs. A printer (80 columns wide) is also optional but comes highly recommended.


LISA provides the use of several disk options. The newer may save LISA text files to disk as either a text or “LISA” type file. “LISA” files are much faster and require less space on the disk, but are incompatible with the rest of the world. Text files may be read in the Apple PIE or your BASIC programs but are much slower than the “LISA” type files for simply loading and saving. In addition a LISA source file on diskette may be appended to the existing file in memory by using the “AP (PEND)” command. During assembly it is possible to “chain” source files in from the disk using the “ICL” pseudo opcode. This allows the user assemble text files which are much larger than the available memory in the Apple II. Likewise by using the “DCM” pseudo opcode, it is possible to save generated code onto the disk, so codefiles of almost any length nay be generated.


LISA operates under DOS 3.2 for file maintenance and peripheral control. Any DOS Command may be executed directly form LISA’s command level. Since PR# and IN# are available for peripheral control. In addition control-p is reserved for use with user defined routines. Those routines may be printer drivers for use with I/O devices not utilizing an onboard-ROM, or with device drivers using the game I/O devices an jack (exact quote for manual) ., or any user defined utility such as slow list , entry into BASIC etc. LISA uses only standard routines in the Apple monitor, so LISA will work with both the normal Apple monitor and the Autostart ROM.

LIA modifies printers in DOS 3.2; therefore, when your LISA disk is booted the DOS which is loaded into memory should not be used for BASIC, or TINY PASCAL programs. LISA saves source files in a special “LISA” format. When you catalog the disk these files will have a filetype of “L”. When running under an unmodified DOS these files will look like binary files, but they cannot be BLOADED or BRUN‘ d. LISA is provided on DOS 3.2 but may be converted to DOS 3.3 using the DOS 3.3 MUFFIN program.

Dated July 1980

Full LISA Manual can be download pdf format link :

Apple Lisa

January 1983
June 1983

US $9,995
How many?
100,000 in two years
Motorola 68000, 5 MHz
1 Meg
12" monochrome monitor
720 X 364 graphics
1 parallel, 2 serial ports
mouse port
three internal slots
Two 5-1/4 inch floppy drives
external 5 Meg hard drive
Apple Lisa GUI

Officially, "Lisa" stood for "Local Integrated Software Architecture", but it was also the name of Apple co-founder Steve Jobs' daughter.

The Lisa is the first commercial computer with a GUI, or Graphical User Interface. Prior to the Lisa, all computers were text based - you typed commands on the keyboard to make the system respond.

Now, with the Lisa, you just point-and-click at tiny pictures on the screen with a small rolling device called a 'mouse'.

This was an amazing advancement in a user-friendly computer system, but Apple didn't invent the idea of the GUI, it's difficult to say who did.

But Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) created the first computer with a Graphical User Interface and a mouse, in 1973! This 'Alto' computer was never sold to the public, and in 1981 the 'Star', which cost $17,000, was far too expensive and sold poorly.

Although Apple spent an incredible amount of time and money developing the Lisa, four years and $50 million, it turned out to be an unpopular system, due to its high price and few available software applications.

Additionally, it was rather slow, as the large and complex operating system was a huge burden on the 5MHz CPU. In addition to the external 5 Megabyte "Profile" hard drive, the Lisa has two internal non-standard 871K 5-1/4 inch "Twiggy" floppy drives.

Unfortunately, the floppy drives were slow and unreliable. Because of this, after selling about 6,500 Lisa computers, Apple offered an upgrade path for Lisa owners, replacing the two "Twiggy" drives with a single 400K 3-1/2 inch Sony floppy drive. The new drive holds half as much data as the old one, but is much more reliable. This new Lisa is refered to as the Lisa 2/5, with the "5" representing the external 5 Meg Profile drive.

Apple also released the Lisa 2/10, with an internal 10 Meg "Widget" hard drive. The System I/O board was redesigned to support the new hard drive, and the parallel port was lost in the process.

The external Profile HD can not be used with this system unless an parallel port expansion card is installed. The upgrade from the original Lisa 1 to the Lisa 2/5 was free to Lisa owners until June 1984, after which it cost $595.

To upgrade from the Lisa 1 to the Lisa 2/10 cost $2495. An additional 512K of RAM could be purchased for $1495. ( 1980 dollars)

The final insult came about a year later, when Apple again changed the Lisa. It would now be known as the Macintosh XL, and run the Macintosh operating system instead of the original Lisa OS.

Sales did pick-up, but Apple discontinued the Lisa line with 100,000 units sold after 2 years. By this time, the popular (and cheaper) Macintosh line of computers was available, of which Apple sold 70,000 in the first 3 months.

The Lisa is very technician-friendly - once the back panel is removed, the entire electronics assembly slides out in one piece, and the circuit boards are easily removed from their sockets. The power supply is just as easy to remove and replace, it is held in place by a single thumb-screw, and slides out with just a tug

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Vintage Computer Manuals

Vintage Apple Microsoft Computer Manuals :Microsoft TASC The AppleSoft Compiler Intro (1981)

Microsoft TASC

The Applesoft Compiler

Microsoft Consumer Products
Consumer Division
400 108th Ave N.E., Suite 200
Bellevue, WA, 98004
(206) 454-1315

Catalog No. 2222
Part No. 20F22


Microsoft’s TASC is designed to complement the Applesoft Interpreter, to extend the Applesoft language, and to enhance execution of Applesoft programs. The Applesoft interpreter itself was designed by Microsoft, Inc. and later modified by Apple Computer, Inc. The interpreter /compiler combination is the ideal Applesoft program development tool since programs can be quickly entered and debugged with the interpreter, then optimized for speed with the compiler.

The compiler supports the Applesoft language with only a few exceptions. Therefore most of the programs already written in Applesoft for the Apple II can be compiled with little or no change

Other major benefits provided by TASC are:

1) Increased execution speed
Applesoft programs compiled with TASC normally from two to twenty times faster than the same programs run under the interpreter.

2) Inter-program communication

Programs can be made to communicate with each other with the use of COMMON variables.
3) True integer arithmetic
Unlike the Applesoft Interpreter, TASC can perform true integer arithmetic. Integer arithmetic can greatly increase execution speed.

4) Source-code security

TASC creates machine language equivalents of Applesoft BASIC programs. This machine language file is all that needs to be distributed when a commercial application is sold. Therefore the Applesoft (called a “source” program) is protected from copy or plagiarism.

5) Disk- based compilation.

Unlike other Applesoft compilers that create the machine language version of the program in memory, TASC writes out the language program to disk as it compiles. This allows TASC to compile programs of virtually any size.

These benefits are important for speed-critical applications such as graphics, and for applications in which a large system of programs needs to be supported by a main menu. TASC is also outstanding for commercial applications sold in a competitive marketplace that require source code security.

TASC is particularly good for programs that are otherwise too large to fit into memory. By separating such programs into parts and communicating between them with COMMON variables, large systems of communicating programs can be created. TASC is an example of such a large system, since TASC was separated into parts and used to compile itself. This gives an indication of the impressive power of TASC as a programming tool.

Dated 1981

Full Microsoft TASC manual located for download pdf format at link:

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