Vintage Computer Manuals

Vintage Computer and Classic Computer Manuals Online

Monday, September 25, 2006

First Russian Mobile Phone

First Russian Mobile Phone

This is the photo of the first Soviet cellular phone. The development of such devices has started in 1958 as a cooperative project by the group of the Soviet scientists from different cities.

It was a fully functional mobile phone that was placed in the car of the Soviet elite. It had a full duplex link and in order to dial a phone one had just pick up the receiver and dial a number using this big square buttons with letters and digits on them. On the first models there were even old-style round dial.

first russian mobile phone

In a common Soviet town the phone base station had only 16 radio channels, but it was enough to serve the local Communist elite with a mobile phone link.

There was used a 150 MHz frequency, so the antenna placed on the roof of a high building could give a coverage area of 40-50 miles.

The first devices were started in production in 1963, and till 1970 more than 30 Soviet cities were covered with this elite mobile phone network. As far as the author knows, in USA there was also such kind of mobile telephone system but it started a bit later – at 1969.

The system had even some modern day features as “conference-call”. And there was a hierarchy in using this system. People who hold higher Communist positions could throw of the line the lower posts when they needed to talk urgently but all the lines were busy. Some could call only local numbers and more advanced Communists could call worldwide.

In the late 70s there appeared a new, less monstrous model of the Soviet mobile phone. It could be conveniently placed between front passenger chairs in the car, not in the trunk as before.

a further modification of the russian mobile phone altai

The Soviet authorities even didn’t think about providing the service to common people. The mobile phone could give another level of freedom to its owner, and it was not what they expected from the citizens.

Vintage Computer Manuals
http://vintagecomputermanuals.blogpspot.com
www.vintagecomputermanuals.com

www.vintageomputer.com


IBM Rebels with A Cause

Video: Rebels with a cause
50 years of disk innovation
For over 50 years, IBM has been a pioneer in developing disk solutions that have helped customers around the globe. Learn more about how these "rebels with a cause" revolutionized the world over. And, learn how the leader in data storage, IBM System Storage, can help you with many more years of innovation to come.

Rebels with a cause (12 MB)
Get Flash Player

Podcast: The history of the disk system

Podcast: The history of the disk system
50 years of disk innovation - podcast
David Vaughn, Worldwide Product Marketing Manager of IBM System Storage, discusses the innovation of the disk system with Albert S Hoagland and Jim Porter.

Listen to the pioneers of the disk system discuss the past 50 years of IBM technology and what they see for future of disk.

pop-up windowListen to podcast (2.3 MB)

IBM's 50 years of leadership in disk storage

Celebrating the lower costs, smaller footprints and higher speed
brought to you by IBM's 50 years of leadership in disk storage
Since we introduced the first hard disk storage 50 years ago, IBM has been on a path of constant progress and innovation. That first 5 megabyte drive was revolutionary in its day, holding more information in one place than anyone had ever imagined, but today you can get 100 times that amount... on your phone!

That’s great, but what have you done for me lately?

Customers can do more with less – the IBM System Storage™ DS8000, scaling up to 320TB, is designed to let you consolidate diverse environments into one small footprint.

Customers can do more for less – our products are designed for a low total cost of ownership, without sacrificing higher performance.

Customers can do it faster – many of our products offer 4Gbps connectivity. Today we measure storage in terabytes, and transfer rates in gigabytes per second.

That’s also great, but what are you going to do for me tomorrow?

We’re going to change how you think about storage. We’re developing storage that thinks about you for a change – smart storage that knows what each item is, and where it belongs. Storage that anticipates how and when you’ll need your data, storage that lets you access any piece of information in any context you choose. Instantly. Pervasive storage built into everything

Sunday, September 24, 2006

490f51ac01e615f4

490f51ac01e615f4





490f51ac01e615f4

Thursday, September 21, 2006






































http://vintgecomputermanuals.blogspot.com
www.vintageomputermanuals.com
www.vintagecomputermanuals.com

Apple Computer

Web Blog Directory
>

www.nytimes.com
http://vintagecomputermanuals.blogspot.com

www.vintageomputermanuals.com
http://vintagecomputermanuals.blogspot.com

When Apple Hit Bottom Sound Familiar ?

When Apple Hit Bottom Sound Familiar ?

As you probably know, Apple’s been in the news quite a bit lately. (That’s “lately,” as in, “pretty much every other month for the last five years.”)

Nowadays, Apple is a media darling. The critics like the company’s direction, and so does Wall Street.

But it wasn’t always so. This summer marked the tenth anniversary of Apple’s lowest point–a time in 1996 when the company’s profits and products were hitting bottom. (Steve Jobs’s return to the company he founded was still a year away.)

Not only was Apple NOT a media darling, it was the dog the media loved to kick. The analysts and columnists were amazingly confident that Apple would not live out the year, let alone the decade.

With a little help from the Lexis-Nexis database of all articles from all major publications, it’s my pleasure to present, for your nostalgia pleasure, some of their predictions from ten years ago:

* Fortune, 2/19/1996: “By the time you read this story, the quirky cult company…will end its wild ride as an independent enterprise.”

* Time Magazine, 2/5/96: “One day Apple was a major technology company with assets to make any self respecting techno-conglomerate salivate. The next day Apple was a chaotic mess without a strategic vision and certainly no future.”

* BusinessWeek, 10/16/95: “Having underforecast demand, the company has a $1 billion-plus order backlog….The only alternative: to merge with a company with the marketing and financial clout to help Apple survive the switch to a software-based company. The most likely candidate, many think, is IBM Corp.”

* A Forrester Research analyst, 1/25/96 (quoted in, of all places, The New York Times): “Whether they stand alone or are acquired, Apple as we know it is cooked. It’s so classic. It’s so sad.”

* Nathan Myhrvold (Microsoft’s chief technology officer, 6/97: “The NeXT purchase is too little too late. Apple is already dead.”

* Wired, “101 Ways to Save Apple,” 6/97: “1. Admit it. You’re out of the hardware game.”

* BusinessWeek, 2/5/96: “There was so much magic in Apple Computer in the early ’80s that it is hard to believe that it may fade away. Apple went from hip to has-been in just 19 years.”

* Fortune, 2/19/1996: “Apple’s erratic performance has given it the reputation on Wall Street of a stock a long-term investor would probably avoid.”

* The Economist, 2/23/95: “Apple could hang on for years, gamely trying to slow the decline, but few expect it to make such a mistake. Instead it seems to have two options. The first is to break itself up, selling the hardware side. The second is to sell the company outright.”

* The Financial Times, 7/11/97: “Apple no longer plays a leading role in the $200 billion personal computer industry. ‘The idea that they’re going to go back to the past to hit a big home run…is delusional,’ says Dave Winer, a software developer.”

Now, obviously, all of these commentators were wildly, hilariously, embarrassingly wrong. (Unless, of course, the iPod is in fact a mass delusion.)

This is why, when anyone asks me what the future of technology holds, or what kids will be bringing to school in 2016, I politely decline to answer. v

In the end, this story really isn’t about Apple–or any one company; they all have ups and downs. This story is about the journalists and commentators. It’s one thing to report what’s happening to a flailing company, and quite another to announce what’s *going* to happen. In the technology business, that’s a fool’s game.



http://pogue.blogs.nytimes.com/

www.vintageomputermanuals.com

http://vintagecomputermanuals.blogspot.com

www.vintagecomputermanuals.com

The Origins of Our LCD Screens and High Definiton Plasma TV in Vintage Computer Monitors

The Origins of Our LCD Screens and High Definiton Plasma TV in Vintage Computer MonitorsWe Owe Much to Uncle Miltie

A feature article by Shinderpal Felon, Sep 21, 2006

We take for granted our LCD Computer Monitors and High Definition Color TVS . Indeed we even take color TV for granted. We owe much to early Computer Monitors and even vintage Black and White TV

It may be amazing to current computer users who are used to small compact LCD monitors. Not only were initial computer monitors large and cumbersome but that the early monitors used by computer enthusiasts were Cathode Ray Monitors that were not color.

Initial vintage monitors were monochrome - one color only not the brilliant color displays that we take for granted today.

Some of these monochrome monitors were green or orange iridescent. Others were similar to a black and white television that is grey scale.

It is taken for granted now by young computer surfers and gamers that television was always "color", not so.

Initially TV broadcasts were in "black and white ".

Color TV had been developed but the technology but the widespread use did not arise till the early 1970's and even later in some areas.

The broadcasts were seen as black and white on those sets and color on color sets. Color TVs could receive programs that were in the black and white mode as well. Sort of the backwards compatibility of the day.

What then would be the difference between the picture qualities of a television set a monitor has vastly greater resolution than standard TV sets.

The TV sets of that time (as opposed to current high end LCD and plasma high definition TVs) were basically 1950's technology - even the newer color TV sets. .

A monitor's screen display should be stable and of good quality, since the computer user may sit very close to the monitor and spend many hours reading the display.
If the images are fuzzy (low resolution) or waver constantly, you would have a throbbing headache and wavering eyes in no time.

Monitors have knobs to adjust for clarity. On vintage monochrome monitors these usually include a brightness knob which adjusts the illumination of the entire screen, and a contrast knob which makes the letters lighter or darker in relation to the background screen newer color monitors will have additional adjustments for color.

The question will arise - how did the vintage CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) monitors initially handle the color technology which came later and became the accepted standard.
A typical color monitor screen worked in much the same way as a standard CRT television.
The inside of the picture tube is coated with three different phosphors: red, green and blue.
Phosphors are special chemical compounds that glow with characteristic colors when bombarded a stream of electrons.

The phosphor gets "excited" and thanks to the additive properties of the color wheel the different colored lights resulting get mixed and that all types of combinations of the three primary colors result.

The end result is that virtually any color of the rainbow can be produced.
And as for the color white the eyes play a useful trick. When all three colors are mixed together in equal quantities, the eye sees this as "white light".

Finally the sharpness of the CRT color monitor or a TV set's image is determined by three factors: the monitor's bandwidth, its dot pitch, and the accuracy of its convergence.
Although the bandwidth and dot pitch are important to determine a good monitor, convergence is the real measurement.

Indeed we have come a long way from the initial simple vintage monochrome monitors. What we now take for granted with LCD monitors and indeed our high definition TV sets all originated with simple CRT monochrome monitor technology which was merged with the technology and tricks gleaned from the color TV industry.

We should all be grateful. We owe much to "Uncle Miltie".

www.vintageomputermanuals.com
http://vintagecomputermanuals.blogspot.com
www.vintagecomputermanuals.com

Commodore Amiga Novelty Playing Cards

Commodore Amiga Novelty Playing Cards

amiga_playing_cards.jpgSure, having naked ladies and Hooters girls are always nice, how about tickling that inner geek bone? These cards just may be able to do it. This is a standard 52 card deck that features a variety of different models of the Commodore Amiga. The jokers even feature the classic, BoingBall. Nevermind the naked ladies, I'll take the vintage computer. The deck is available for $18 and will likely make all of your geek friends swoon.

http://gizmodo.com/gadgets/gadgets/commodore-amiga-novelty-playing-cards-195220.php


www.vintageomputermanuals.com
http://vvintagecomputermanuals.blogpspot.com
www.vintagecomputermanuals.com

http://vvintagecomputermanuals.blogspot.com/

History of Linux


History of Linux

History of Linux
by Ragib Hasan
May 14, 2002

History of Linux by (Copyright: 2000)Table of Contents a. In The Beginning b. New Baby in the horizon c. Confrontation and development d. Some Linux Cookies e.

Ackknowledgmentsa. In The BeginningIt was 1991, and the ruthless agonies of the cold war was gradually coming to an end. There was an air of peace and tranquility that prevailed in the horizon. In the field of computing, a great future seemed to be in the offing, as powerful hardware pushed the limits of the computers beyond what anyone expected. But still, something was missing.

And it was the none other than the Operating Systems, where a great void seemed to have appeared. For one thing, DOS was still reigning supreme in its vast empire of personal computers. Bought by Bill Gates from a Seattle hacker for $50,000, the bare bones operating system had sneaked into every corner of the world by virtue of a clever marketing strategy. PC users had no other choice. Apple Macs were better, but with astronomical prices that nobody could afford, they remained a horizon away from the eager millions.

The other dedicated camp of computing was the Unix world. But Unix itself was far more expensive. In quest of big money, the Unix vendors priced it high enough to ensure small pc users stayed away from it. The source code of Unix, once taught in 1universities courtesy of Bell Labs, was now cautiously and not published publicly. To add to the frustration of PC users worldwide, the big players in the software market failed to provide an efficient solution to this problem.

A solution seemed to appear in form of MINIX. It was written from scratch by Andrew S. Tanenbaum, a dutch professor who wanted to teach his students the inner workings of a real operating system. It was designed to run on the Intel 8086 microprocessors that had flooded the world market. As an operating system, MINIX was not a superb one.

But it had the advantage that the source code was available. Anyone who happened to get the book ‘Operating System’ by Tanenbaum could get hold of the 12,000 lines of code, written in C and assembly language. For the first time, an aspiring programmer or hacker could read the source codes of the operating system, which to that time the software vendors had guarded vigorously. Students of Computer Science all over the world poured over the book, reading through the codes to understand the very system that runs their computer. And one of them was Linus Torvalds.

——————————————————————————–b. New Baby in the Horizon In 1991, Linus Benedict Torvalds was a second year student of Computer Science at the University of Helsinki and a self-taught hacker. The 21 year old sandy haired soft-spoken Finn loved to tinker with the power of the computers and the limits to which the system can be pushed. But all that was lacking was an operating system that could meet the demands of the professionals. MINIX was good, but still it was simply an operating system for the students, designed as a teaching tool rather than an industry strength one.

At that time, programmers worldwide were greatly inspired by the GNU project by Richard Stallman, a software movement to provide free and quality software. The much awaited Gnu C compiler was available by then, but there was still no operating system. Even MINIX had to be licensed. Work was going the GNU kernel HURD, but that was not supposed to come out within a few years. That was too much of a delay for Linus.

In August 25, 1991 the historic post was sent to the MINIX news group by Linus ….. From: torvalds@klaava.Helsinki.FI (Linus Benedict Torvalds) Newsgroups: comp.os.minix Subject: What would you like to see most in minix? Summary: small poll for my new operating system Message-ID: <1991aug25.205708.9541@klaava.helsinki.fi> Date: 25 Aug 91 20:57:08 GMT Organization: University of Helsinki Hello everybody out there using minix - I’m doing a (free) operating system (just a hobby, won’t be big and professional like gnu) for 386(486) AT clones. This has been brewing ; since april, and is starting to get ready. I’d like any feedback on things people like/dislike in minix, as my OS resembles it somewhat (same physical layout of the file-system (due to practical reasons) among other things). I’ve currently ported bash(1.08) and gcc(1.40),and things seem to work.This implies that I’ll get something practical within a few months, andI’d like to know what features most people would want.

Any suggestions are welcome, but I won’t promise I’ll implement them :-) Linus (torvalds@kruuna.helsinki.fi) PS. Yes - it’s free of any minix code, and it has a multi-threaded fs. It is NOT protable (uses 386 task switching etc), and it probably never will support anything other than AT-harddisks, as that’s all I have :-( . As it is apparent from the posting, Linus himself didn’t believe that his creation was going to be big enough to change computing forever. Linux version 0.01 was released by mid september 1991, and was put on the net.

Enthusiasm gathered around this new kid on the block, and codes were downloaded, tested, tweaked, and returned to Linus. 0.02 came on October 5th, along with this famous declaration from Linus: From: torvalds@klaava.Helsinki.FI (Linus Benedict Torvalds) Newsgroups: comp.os.minix Subject: Free minix-like kernel sources for 386-AT Message-ID: <1991oct5.054106.4647@klaava.helsinki.fi> Date: 5 Oct 91 05:41:06 GMT Organization: University of Helsinki Do you pine for the nice days of minix-1.1, when men were men and wrote their own device drivers? Are you without a nice project and just dying to cut your teeth on a OS you can try to modify for your ; needs? Are you finding it frustrating when everything works on minix? No more all-nighters to get a nifty program working? Then this post might be just for you :-) As I mentioned a month(?) ago, I’m working on a free version of a minix-lookalike for AT-386 computers. It has finally reached the stage where it’s even usable (though may not be depending on what you want), and I am willing to put out the sources for wider distribution. It is just version 0.02 (+1 (very small) patch already), but I’ve successfully run bash/gcc/gnu-make/gnu-sed/compress etc under it. Sources for this pet project of mine can be found at nic.funet.fi (128.214.6.100) in the directory /pub/OS/Linux.

The directory also contains some README-file and a couple of binaries to work under linux (bash, update and gcc, what more can you ask for :-) . Full kernel source is provided, as no minix code has been used. Library sources are only partially free, so that cannot be distributed currently. The system is able to compile “as-is” and has been known to work. Heh.

Sources to the binaries (bash and gcc) can be found at the same place in /pub/gnu. Linux version 0.03 came in a few weeks. By December came version 0.10. Still Linux was little more than in skeletal form. It had only support for AT hard disks, had no login ( booted directly to bash).

version 0.11 was much better with support for multilingual keyboards, floppy disk drivers, support for VGA,EGA, Hercules etc. The version numbers went directly from 0.12 to 0.95 and 0.96 and so on. Soon the code went worldwide via ftp sites at Finland and elsewhere. back ——————————————————————————–c. Confrontation & Development Soon Linus faced some confrontation from none other than Andrew Tanenbaum, the great teacher who wrote MINIX.

In a post to Linus, Tanenbaum commented: ” I still maintain the point that designing a monolithic kernel in 1991 is a fundamental error. Be thankful you are not my student. You would not get a high grade for such a design :-) ” (Andrew Tanenbaum to Linus Torvalds) Linus later admitted that it was the worst point of his development of Linux. Tanenbaum was certainly the famous professor, and anything he said certainly mattered. But he was wrong with Linux, for Linus was one stubborn guy who won’t admit defeat.

Tanenbaum also remarked that : “Linux is obsolete”. Now was the turn for the new Linux generation. Backed by the strong Linux community, Linus gave a reply to Tanenbaum which seems to be most fitting: Your job is being a professor and researcher: That’s one hell of a good excuse for some of the brain-damages of minix. (Linus Torvalds to Andrew Tanenbaum) And work went on. Soon more than a hundred people joined the Linux camp.

Then thousands. Then hundreds of thousands. This was no longer a hackers toy. Powered by a plethora of programs from the GNU project, Linux was ready for the actual showdown. It was licensed under GNU General Public License, thus ensuring that the source codes will be free for all to copy, study and to change.

Students and computer programmers grabbed it. Soon, commercial vendors moved in. Linux itself was, and is free. What the vendors did was to compile up various software and gather them in a distributable format, more like the other operating systems with which people were more familiar. Red Hat , Caldera, Debian, and some other companies gained substantial amount of response from the users worldwide.

With the new Graphical User Interfaces (like X-windows, KDE) the Linux distributions became very popular. Meanwhile, there were amazing things happening with Linux. Engineers have tweaked Linux to run 3Com’s handheld PalmPilot computer. Red Hat Software’s version of Linux won the 1996 award for bestdesktop computer operating system from trade magazine InfoWorld. In April that year researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory used Linux to run 68 PCs as a single parallel processing machine to simulate atomic shock waves.The do-it-yourself supercomputer cost only $152,000, including labor (connecting the 68 PCs with cables)-about one tenth the price of a comparable commercial machine.

It reached a peak speed of 19 billion calculations per second, making it the 315th most powerful supercomputer in the world. Three months later it still didn’t have to be rebooted. The best thing about Linux today is the fanatic following it commands. Whenever a new piece of hardware is out, Linux kernel is tweaked to take advantage of it. For example, within weeks after the introduction of Intel Xeon® Microprocessor, Linux kernel was tweaked and was ready for it.

It has also been adapted for use in Alpha, Mac, PowerPC, and even for palmtops, a feat which is hardly matched by any other operating system. And it continues its journey into the new millenium, with the same enthusiasm that started one fine day back in 1991. As for Linus, he remains a simple man. Unlike Bill Gates, he is not a billionaire. Having completed studies, he moved to USA and landed a job at Transmeta Corporation.

Recently married, he is the proud father of a girl, Patricia Miranda Torvalds. But he remains as the world’s most favorite and most famous programmer to this date. Revered by Computer communities worldwide, Linus is by far the most popular programmer on this planet. He deserves it.
Epilogue 2000The year 2000 started as the beginning of a new century, and of course, a brand new millenium.

With the ever increasing popularity of Linux sky-rocketing to new heights, it was clear that Linux was to stay as an inevitable part of computing in the 3rd Millenium. And the father of Linux, Linus Torvalds also created headlines when his company Transmeta Corporation delivered the ultimate result of their secret product, the amazing Crusoe(TM) processor. Linus worked from the beginning as a project member, and the resultant Crusoe processor is another testimony to his remarkable abilities as a dreamer. One thing is clear, The Future Belongs To Linux!Acknowledgements
History is always boring, but history of Computing and that of Linux are very interesting. Much of the source of this article has been taken from the Internet.

It was inspired by the questions asked by many would be Linux users at meetings and postings of Bangladesh Linux Users Group.Thanks to all. All materials taken from various sources belong to their respective authors. All trademarks belong to the respective corporations and companies. Microsoft and Windows are registered trademarks of Microsoft corp. The author fully reserve the right to the portions of this article written solely by himself, under Gnu GPL.

However all are requested to distribute this article freely and vigorosly provided my name and email address is given clearly with this article. ( If this legal things bore you, don’t blame me. Who knows, Microsoft lawyers might find a way to sue for their Logo or name… :) ). For all mistakes and suggestions Contact me: , Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

mail me at ragibhasan@yahoo.com.

Free Articles and Content by ContentDesk.com

Copyright 2005-2006 ContentDesk.com. All rights reserved.
Individual articles are copyrights of respective authors.
Copyright Notice | Editorial Guidelines

www.vintagecomputermanuals.com
www.vintageomputermanuals.com

http://www.vintagecomputermanuals.com
Vintage Computer Manuals

http://vvintagecomputermanuals.blogspot.com/

IBM PC Clones



Web Blog Directory











www.vintagecomputermanuals.com
http://vvintagecomputermanuals.blogspot.com
www.vintageomputermanuals.com

http://vvintagecomputermanuals.blogspot.com/

IBM clone
This computer was given by Jean-Pierre Newby (1997)

Because of it's open architecture the IBM PC became the most copied computer in the world.
---
This one was made by Microcom in 1985.
  • Intel 8088 CPU
  • 640 K Ram
  • 2 flopies 360K
  • 1 hard drive 40Megs
  • RGB Graphic card
  • 80 col. by 25 lines
  • 1 parallel port
  • 1 serial port

Vintage Computer Manuals
http://www.vintagecomputermanuals.com

http://vvintagecomputermanuals.blogspot.com/

The Origin of “Clones” In Vintage PC Hardware History


The Origin of “Clones” In Vintage PC Hardware History

The Origin of “Clones” In Vintage PC Hardware History
by billys_office@yahoo.com
September 03, 2006

Download as Text | Download as HTML

The history of microcomputers does not compare with the history of ancient Mesopotamia (Iraq). Microcomputers (now commonly held as PCs) have been around for only 25 – 30 years.

It is good to have some knowledge of this history both to give some perspective of where we are today and to know where a number of our basic computer standards that we take for granted – as if they came from heaven, originated.

The very first microcomputer machines were as exciting as a do-it yourself set – a thrill if you were the type who forever liked to tinker with things to make them work. .

Early personal computers (or micococomputers as they were first called lacked a clear standard. The computer chip makers – Intel, Motorola and Zilog - all competed in the microprocessor (CPU) in a rash of different computers from different manufactures. None were compatible with any others.

IBM’s introduction of the real IBM PC in August 1981 opened the eyes of many. IBM had scores of sales representatives with credibility who were well entrenched in corporations and businesses around the world.

The IBM sales staff – used to selling big ticker items and invoicing hundreds of thousands of dollars – well dressed in “IBM Blue “ three piece suits , were well accustomed to corporate life and power structures with the “movers and shakers” who counted .

IBM opened their own stores selling all IBM hardware as well as their own brand of software. The software had been written by third parties and adapted for the PC- DOS (IBM‘s proprietary version of the Microsoft Operating System DOS sold under license). IBM insisted that all the software be packaged in the very same standard plain white boxes with identical blue labeling.

A number of companies began to produce machines that used the MS-DOS (Microsoft DOS) operating system .In the beginning, they were similar to PC-DOS machines, but were not fully compatible – software for PC-OS would seldom run on an MS-DOS machine and vice –versa. Somewhere along the way however the 2 merged so that in the end there was little distinction between the two operating systems – IBM PC-DOS and Microsoft MS-DOS. Hence both the IBM compatible computes (clones) and genuine IBM computers would both run the same software properly.

BM kept the pressure on with its next system release, the 6 MHz PC/AT, the first machine to use Intel’s next generation chip the 80286 CPU. .

However, these first generation ATs were plagued by frequent hard disk failures. Without any warning, a user’s disk would fail and important and essential data would be lost. The problem was so widespread that IBM clones manufacturers started to erode IBM’s market dominance.

This went on as the clone competition continually improved their products. As well PC clones were substantially cheaper than IBM’s machines, with larger hard disks (from 40 megabytes to even the unbelievable 100). Greater memory became standard, and options such as built in serial and parallel ports were added to system boards. As well clones often included displays, display adapters and software in attractively priced bundles.

The PC/AT continued to sell well, but IBM’s market share began to erode, even though it was selling more machines than ever before. Other clone manufacturers (Compaq and Advanced Logic Research for example) moved quickly on Intel’s next big microprocessor introductions.

The die was set. The IBM PC set the standards but the clone manufacturers forever dominated the market which IBM had developed and lost.

Free Articles and Content by ContentDesk.com
Bill Piker Vintage Computer Enthusiast vintagecomputermanuals@yahoo http://vintagecomputermanuals.blogspot.com/ www.vintagecomputermanuals.com

Copyright 2005-2006 ContentDesk.com. All rights reserved.
Individual articles are copyrights of respective authors.
Copyright Notice | Editorial Guidelines

Vintage Computer Manuals

http://www.vintagecomputermanuals.com

Sunday, September 17, 2006

Vintage PhosphorComputer Monitor










http://vvintagecomputermanuals.blogspot.com/





www.vintagecomputermanuals.com
Vintage Computer Manuals
http://vintagecomputermanuals.blogspot.com
www.vintageomputers.com

Vintage Green Phosphor Computer Monitor

www.vintagecomputermanuals.com
Vintage Computer Manuals
http://vintagecomputermanuals.blogspot.com
www.vintageomputers.com

http://vvintagecomputermanuals.blogspot.com/

Vintage Green Phosphor Computer Monitors



www.vintagecomputermanuals.com
Vintage Computer Manuals
http://vintagecomputermanuals.blogspot.com
www.vintageomputers.com

www.vintagecomputermanuals.com
Vintage Computer Manuals
http://vintagecomputermanuals.blogspot.com
www.vintageomputers.com

The Munsters Classic Black and White TV














www.vintagecomputermanuals.com
Vintage Computer Manuals
http://vintagecomputermanuals.blogspot.com
www.vintageomputers.com

Vintage Black and White TV Sets



www.vintagecomputermanuals.com
Vintage Computer Manuals
http://vintagecomputermanuals.blogspot.com
www.vintageomputers.com

The Origins of Our LCD Screens and High Definiton Plasma TV in Vintage Computer Monitors

It may be amazing to current computer users who are used to small compact LCD monitors. Not only were initial computer monitors large and cumbersome but that the early monitors used by computer enthusiasts were Cathode Ray Monitors that were not color,

Initial vintage monitors were monochrome – one color only not the brilliant color displays that we take for granted today.

Some of these monochrome monitors were green or orange iridescent. Others were similar to a black and white television that is grey scale.

It is taken for granted now by young computer surfers and gamers that television was always “color”, not so.

Initially TV broadcasts were in “black and white “.

Color TV had been developed but the technology but the widespread use did not arise till the early 1970’s and even later in some areas.

The broadcasts were seen as black and white on those sets and color on color sets.
Color TVs could receive programs that were in the black and white mode as well. Sort of the backwards compatibility of the day.

What then would be the difference between the picture qualities of a television set a monitor has vastly greater resolution than standard TV sets.

The TV sets of that time (as opposed to current high end LCD and plasma high definition TVs) were basically 1950’s technology – even the newer color TV sets. .


A monitor’s screen display should be stable and of good quality, since the computer user may sit very close to the monitor and spend many hours reading the display.

If the images are fuzzy (low resolution) or waver constantly, you would have a throbbing headache and wavering eyes in no time.

Monitors have knobs to adjust for clarity. On vintage monochrome monitors these usually include a brightness knob which adjusts the illumination of the entire screen, and a contrast knob which makes the letters lighter or darker in relation to the background screen newer color monitors will have additional adjustments for color.

The question will arise – how did the vintage CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) monitors initially handle the color technology which came later and became the accepted standard.

A typical color monitor screen worked in much the same way as a standard CRT television.

The inside of the picture tube is coated with three different phosphors: red, green and blue.

Phosphors are special chemical compounds that glow with characteristic colors when bombarded a stream of electrons.

The phosphor gets “excited” and thanks to the additive properties of the color wheel the different colored lights resulting get mixed and that all types of combinations of the three primary colors result.

The end result is that virtually any color of the rainbow can be produced.

And as for the color white the eyes play a useful trick. When all three colors are mixed together in equal quantities, the eye sees this as “white light”.

Finally the sharpness of the CRT color monitor or a TV set’s image is determined by three factors: the monitor’s bandwidth, its dot pitch, and the accuracy of its convergence.

Although the bandwidth and dot pitch are important to determine a good monitor, convergence is the real measurement.

Indeed we have come a long way from the initial simple vintage monochrome monitors. What we now take for granted with LCD monitors and indeed our high definition TV sets all originated with simple CRT monochrome monitor technology which was merged with the technology and tricks gleaned from the color TV industry.

We should all be grateful. We owe much to "Uncle Miltie".


www.vintagecomputermanuals.com
Vintage Computer Manuals
http://vintagecomputermanuals.blogspot.com
www.vintageomputers.com

William Gates Junior

Lone Hacker Makes life Difficult for Bll Gates

SAN FRANCISCO: A solitary computer hacker has entangled Microsoft in a high-stakes battle of wits by repeatedly releasing a free program that strips away the software lock that the company created to protect digital movies and songs from being freely copied by Internet users. While Microsoft has publicly sought to portray the David vs Goliath contest as a nuisance, the affair became a genuine challenge to one of the company's significant businesses this week after BSkyB, the British satellite broadcaster, suspended its film download service amid fears of illegal copying. The MS system is designed to prohibit Internet users from making illegal copies of movies or songs played in Windows Media 9 or 10 formats. It is used by digital content distributors that include BSkyB, Movielink, RealNetworks and MTVs Urge music subscription service. In July, the computer programmer, who calls himself Viodentia in Internet postings, released an online tool to remove copy protection from movie and song files. It was a refinement of an existing program, making it easier to use. The program, he stressed, was intended only to enable purchasers of digital media to exercise so-called fair use rights in copying material they had already acquired. Since then, it has been downloaded tens of thousands of times.The cat-and-mouse game began on August 19 when Viodentia released a first version of his program on a series of Web sites around the world. Nine days later, MS responded by patching its system to prevent the hacker's tool, called FairUse4WM, from working. But within three days a new version of the code-breaking program was circulating. The new version of hacker's tool has been more troubling for MS. "We are actively working on an update and communicating with our content partners and licensees as we go," said Marcus Matthias, a product manager at MS

www.inditatimes.com

Saturday, September 16, 2006


www.cnet.com
www.hitachi.com
www.ibm.com


www.vintageomputersmanuals.com
www.vintagecomputermanuals.com

www.cnet.com
www.vintageomputermanuals.com
www.vintagecomputermanuals.com
http://vintagecomputermanuals.blogspot.com

www.vintageomputermanuals.com

www.cnet.com
www.ibm.com
www.vintageomputermanuals.com